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The Human Cost of Yellow fever in America: A Chronology

The Human Cost of Yellow fever in America: A Chronology [1,2] (primary references available on request).

1793 to 1900 – An estimated 500,000 cases of yellow fever occurred in the United States.
1693 to 1905- An estimated 100,000 to 150,000 died of yellow fever in the United States. These figures included 14,217 deaths in Philadelphia during 1699 to 1803.
1904 to 1914 – The death rate among American personnel involved in constructing the Panama Canal was 15.8 per 1,000.

Chronology:
1668 – Yellow fever was first reported in North America – including 370 fatal cases in New York City
1803 – 606 fatal cases were reported in New York City.
1856 – 538 fatal cases were reported in New York City.
1793 – An outbreak (4,044 fatal cases – 10% of the population) was reported in Philadelphia.
1794 – An outbreak (360 fatal cases) was reported in Baltimore, Maryland.
1798 – Outbreaks were reported in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (3,506 fatal cases) and New York City.
1800 – An outbreak (1,197 fatal cases) was reported in Baltimore, Maryland.
1803 – Outbreaks (606 fatal cases) were reported in New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1838 to 1839 – An outbreak was reported in Charleston, South Carolina.
1839 – An outbreak (250 fatal cases – 5% of the population) was reported in Galvaston, Texas.
1852 – An outbreak was reported in Charleston, South Carolina.
1853 – An outbreak (4,858 fatal cases) was reported in New Orleans.
1855 – An outbreak was reported in Virginia.
1862 – An outbreak was reported in Wilmington, North Carolina.
1867 – An outbreak (1,150 fatal cases – 5% of the population) was reported in Galveston, Texas.
1877 – An outbreak was reported in Port Royal, South Carolina.
1878 – An outbreak (13,000 fatal cases) was reported in the Mississippi Valley. 4,046 fatal cases were reported in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1888 – An outbreak was reported in Mississippi.
1905 – America’s last outbreaks were reported in New Orleans, Louisiana (8,399 cases) and Pensacola, Florida.
1910 – A case of yellow fever was identified in a ship arriving to Hawaii, with secondary infection of a quarantine guard.
1911 – The last indigenous case of yellow fever in the United States was reported.
1924 – An imported case was reported.
1996 – A traveler from Brazil died of yellow fever in Tennessee.
1999 – A fatal case (non-vaccinated American tourist returning from Venezuela) was reported in California.
2002 – An American traveler died of yellow fever in Texas following return from Brazil.

Some famous American Yellow fever victims: [3]
1704 – French explorers Pierre-Charles Le Seuer (first European to explore the Minnesota River valley) and Henri de Tonti (explorer with La sale) died of yellow fever in Alabama.
1790 – Samuel Nicholas, first Commandant of the United States Marines, died of yellow fever in Philadelphia.
1798 – John Fenno, prominent journalist, dies of yellow fever in Philadelphia.
1820- Benjamin Latrobe, designer of the United States Capitol, died of yellow fever in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1844 – John Conrad Otto, noted physician, died of yellow fever in Philadelphia.
1867 – Michael O’Laughlen, a conspirator in the Lincoln assassination, died of Yellow fever in the Florida keys.
1835 – Dr. David Hosack, the doctor who attended Alexander Hamilton, died of shock (possibly yellow fever) in New York City.
1862 – Ormsby Mitchel, astronomer and Civil War general, died of yellow fever in South Carolina.
1863 – Designer of the first Trans-continental Railway (fatal infection, contracted in Panama)
1879 – General John Bell Hood dies of yellow fever in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1888- Richard A. Proctor, a pioneer in Martian astronomy, died of yellow fever in New York.
1900 to 1901 – Dr. Jesse William Lazear and nurse Clara Maass died of yellow fever after allowing themselves to be bitten by infected mosquitoes in Panama.
1902 – Thomas Nast, political cartoonist, died of yellow fever in Ecuador.
1929 – Dr. Paul A. Lewis, a noted yellow fever researcher, died of the disease in Brazil.

Americans who survived yellow fever have included:
Benjamin Rush (physician and signatory to the Declaration of Independence)
Anson Jones (President of The Republic of Texas)
Jack London (author)
Cyrus McCormick (inventor of the mechanical reaper)
Donald Meek (movie actor)
Philip Syng Physick (“the father of American surgery”).
Zachary Taylor (American President), contracted Yellow fever while serving the in Army in New Orleans, Louisiana (ca. 1809)

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2013. 1,119 pages, 470 graphs, 11,030 references. Gideon e-books, www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Berger SA. Yellow Fever: Global Status, 2013. 142 pages, 124 graphs, 678 references. Gideon e-books, www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/yellow-fever-global-status/
3. Berger SA. www.VIPatients.com

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