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Archive for the ‘ProMED’ Category

Measles Rates vs. Vaccine Coverage

For many years, rates of measles (per 100,000 population) reported by the  WHO European and Americas Regions have been similar. During the same period, both regions have maintained high uptake of measles vaccine. [1,2] In the following graph, I’ve contrasted these figures with those of Africa, which continues to report both high measles rates and inadequate vaccine usage.

References:

  1. Berger S. Measles: Global Status, 2018.  497 pages, 537 graphs, 5,151 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/measles-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the World, 2018. 1,463 pages, 430 graphs, 39,718 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-world/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

 

Listeriosis in the European Union

A recent series of outbreaks in Europe reflects an increasing incidence of listeriosis in the region.  In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates per 100,000 in the European Union with those of the United States [1,2] :

 

References:

  1. Berger S. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2018. 128 pages, 108 graphs, 1,203 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Norovirus Infection in South Korea

The following background information on Norovirus infection in South Korea was abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1-3]  A computer-generated parsing program of PubMeD and ProMED identifies 22,521 published Infectious Diseases outbreaks.  735 of these outbreaks specify Norovirus as the disease agent.  South Korea accounts for 0.67% of all outbreaks, and for 1.5% of Norovirus outbreaks.  Details of the individual events are summarized in table 1.

Further analysis of these sources identified 59,774 prevalence / seroprevalence surveys.  745 of these surveys examine the prevalence of viral agents associated with gastroenteritis.  South Korea accounts for 18.6% of all Infectious Disease surveys, and 3.4% of surveys involving viral gastroenteritis. Details of surveys which examine Norovirus prevalence are summarized in table 2.

Primary references are available from the author.

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of South Korea, 2018. 418 pages, 108 graphs, 2,260 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-south-korea/
  2. Berger SA. Gideon Guide to Outbreaks, 2018. 1,900 pages, 5,246 tables, 50,908 references.  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/outbreaks/
  3. Berger SA. Gideon Guide to Surveys, 2018. 4,028 pages, 10,229 tables, 53,802 references.  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/surveys/

 

Listeriosis in Spain

Rates of listeriosis in Spain have been increasing since 2000, and are currently more than 15-fold those reported in the United States. [1]  Regarding the recent case posted on ProMED, Listeria is identified in 12.1% to 16.5% of community-acquired bacterial meningitis cases among Spanish adults. [2] The following chart was produced using a multi-graph tool in Gideon. [3]

References:

  1. Berger S. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2018.  122 pages, 107 graphs, 1,039 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Spain, 2018. 535 pages, 195 graphs, 2,871 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-spain/
  3. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Varicella Vaccination in the United States

For over 50 years, deaths due to varicella in the United States have exceeded deaths from measles, mumps and rubella.  The introduction of varicella vaccine during 1995 to 1996 was followed by a marked decline in mortality rates. [1,2]  See graphs below [3]

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2018. 157 pages, 133 graphs, 927 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  3. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

 

 

Scrub Typhus in Thailand

Rates of scrub typhus [ST] in Thailand have been increasing dramatically since the 1970’s.  In fact, the reported incidence of ST in this country is now higher than those of Hepatitis A, Leptospirosis, Melioidosis, Typhoid and even Shigellosis (chart A, below).  Among Asian countries, only south Korea reports higher rates of ST (chart B); and the disease is currently more common in Thailand than are comparable rickettsial diseases in the United States and in my own country (chart C).   In preparing these figures, I was also struck by the similarity in numbers of fatal ST cases reported in Thailand vs. fatal RMSF cases in the United States (chart D). [1-3]

References:

  1. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/
  2. Berger SA. Australo-Asian Spotted Fevers: Global Status, 2017. 63 pages, 16 graphs, 722 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-asian-spotted-fevers-global-status/
  3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2017. 461 pages, 169 graphs, 2,015 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononlin he.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/

 

Note featured in Promed

Cryptosporidiosis in Ireland

The reported incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland is higher than those of salmonellosis, shigellosis and giardiasis.  In fact, cryptosporidiosis is more common in this region than in the United States. [1,2]

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Cryptosporidiosis – Global Status, 2017. 120 pages, 50 graphs, 1,699 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/cryptosporidiosis-global-status/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Trypanosomiasis – Imported / Exported

Gideon follows cross-border Infectious Disease events in tabular form – including movement of infected animals, and outbreaks related to imported items. [1]  The following list chronicles cases of African trypanosomiasis which were imported into South Africa, or were exported from Zambia.  Further details and references are available from the author.

Acquired in Zambia.

1986 – An American tourist acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.
2000 – A British tourist acquired trypanosomiasis (nonfatal) in Zambia.
2001 – A British national acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.
2008 – A British tourist acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.
2010 – An American tourist and a South African Ranger acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.
2010 – A British traveler developed trypanosomiasis following travel in Zambia and Zimbabwe.
2015 – A Canadian traveler acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.
2016 – An American traveler acquired trypanosomiasis while on safari in Zambia and Botswana.
2017 – A German traveler acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.

 

Imported into South Africa

2000 – A South African tourist acquired trypanosomiasis in Malawi.
2001 – Three South Africans acquired trypanosomiasis in Tanzania.
2004 – A South African tourist acquired trypanosomiasis in Tanzania.
2005 – Two cases were imported from Malawi and one from Zimbabwe.
2006 – One case from Uganda.
2007 – Four travelers from South Africa acquired trypanosomiasis in Malawi.
2008 – A South African tourist acquired trypanosomiasis in Tanzania.
2009 – Three South African tourist acquired trypanosomiasis – in Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe.
2010 – A South African Ranger acquired trypanosomiasis in Zambia.
2010 – A South African tourist acquired trypanosomiasis in Malawi.
2010 – Trypanosomiasis was diagnosed in two migrants from Democratic Republic of Congo, living in South Africa.

References:

  1. Berger SA. GIDEON Guide to Cross Border Infections, 2017. 217 pages, 128 tables, 3,936 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/travel/

 

 

 

Fascioliasis in India

Gideon (www.GideonOnline.com) notes that a single Indian case (1980) of human fascioliasis was published in the world’s literature during 1969 to 1989. Subsequent cases were reported in upper Assam (published in 1997) , Bihar  and Uttar Pradesh (published in 2001).  Two cases were treated at a hospital in Vellore during a three-month period (2012 publication).  Fascioliasis is common among dairy animals in the northwest Himalayan region and the Kashmir valley.  In the latter area, sheep harbor both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.  F. gigantica has also been identified in Indian buffaloes (Bos bubalis).   Eleven published surveys found that 0.32 to 24.3 of animals (ovines, bovines, deer) in various areas of India are infested. [1,2]

Lymnaea (Fossaria) truncatula is the Indian reservoir for Fasciola hepatica; and Ly. acuminata and Ly. auricularia the reservoirs for F. gigantica.

Further details and primary references are available on request.

Reference:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of India, 2017. 533 pages, 89 graphs, 5,763 references.  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-india/
  2. Berger S. Hepatobiliary Trematodes: Global Status, 2017. 87 pages, 1,193 references. Gideon e-books.  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatobiliary-trematodes-global-status/

 

Rickettsial Spotted Fever: United States vs. Brazil

A higher case / fatality ratio for reported spotted fever cases in Brazil vs. the United States suggests that the Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii is more virulent.  In the following charts I’ve compared data for disease incidence and deaths for each of the countries, and contrasted death rates per 100,000 population. [1,2]

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Brazil, 571 pages, 120 graphs, 5,552 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-brazil/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

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