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Archive for the ‘ProMED’ Category

Salmonellosis in Australia

Rates of salmonellosis in Australia have been increasing for many decades, and have been considerably higher than those reported in other English-speaking countries since 2000.  In fact, as evident in the following chart, disease incidence in neighboring New Zealand, the United States, Ireland, Canada and the United States have either leveled off or even decreased during this period.[1,2]


  1. Berger S. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2017. 324 pages, 302 graphs, 3,559 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references. Gideon e-books,
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,

Ross River Disease in Australia

In recent years, the incidence of Ross River disease in Australia has increased somewhat, with most cases reported from Queensland.  Rates in Western Australia and Northern Territory have not changed substantially. [1,2]  See graph:


  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references, Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2017. 36 pages, 20 graphs, 401 references. Gideon e-books,

Note featured on ProMED


Tick-borne Encephalitis in Switzerland

Rates (per 100,000) of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland have increased somewhat since the year 2000, and are currently higher than those reported by surrounding countries.  The following image was created by a tool in Gideon ( that converts incidence data into population rates and combines user-selected graphs into a single chart.

Note featured in ProMED

Severe Fever and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

Incidence data for Severe Fever and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome are displayed in the following chart [1]  In contrast with Japan, The Republic of Korea has experienced a dramatic increase in rates since the disease was first reported.




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Spotted Fever in Israel and the United States

Although Mediterranean spotted fever was commonly reported in Israel for several decades, rates have declined considerably in recent years.  In fact, the disease is currently less common than it’s American counterpart [1]   The following chart was generated using the Gideon multi-graph tool [1] :


Note appears on ProMED


Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia

Rates of Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFM) have been increasing in several Asian countries for the past decade [1] – see graph



  1. Berger S. Enterovirus Infections: Global Status, 2017.  139 pages, 67 graphs, 2,534 references. Gideon e-books

Enterovirus infections: Global Status

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Japanese Encephalitis in India

The idea that most cases of “acute encephalitis” in Uttar Pradesh are caused by diseases other than Japanese encephalitis is borne out by reporting statistics.  In the following chart, note the precipitous decline in “Japanese encephalitis” incidence which followed introduction of reporting for “Acute encephalitis” in 2008 (upper graph).  This phenomenon is even more striking for India as a whole (lower graph). [1,2]



  1. Berger S. Japanese Encephalitis: Global Status. 83 pages, 63 graphs, 1,034 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of India. 533 pages, 89 graphs, 5,763 references. Gideon e-books.

Note featured in ProMED


Botulism in The United States

Rates of food-borne botulism in the United Sates have declined somewhat since the 1990’s, while those of infant botulism continue to increase. [1]  See graph


  1. Berger S. Botulism: Global Status, 99 pages, 90 graphs, 877 references, Gideon e-books

Botulism: Global Status

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Cyclosporiasis in The United States

The following background information on Cyclosporiasis in the United States is abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series [1]   (Primary references are available on request)

Cyclosporiasis is the least common reportable protozoan infection in the United States.  In 2008, the reported disease rate among 10 states was 2.25 per 100,000 population.

The true incidence of food-borne cyclosporiasis in the United States has been estimated at 11,407 to 19,808 cases per year (15 hospitalizations), accounting for 0.1% of all food-borne illness. Approximately 42% of cases are imported.

1,110 individual cases of cyclosporiasis were reported during 1997 to 2008.  849 (76.5%) of the cases occurred in seven states, including 498 (44.9% of total) in Florida.  51.7% of cases with known travel history were autochthonous. {p 21471951}

No fatal cases were reported during 1998 to 2006.

Nine food-borne outbreaks (325 cases) of cyclosporiasis were reported during 1998 to 2002; 0 in 2007; 3 (66 total cases) in 2008; 1 (8 cases) in 2009; 0 in 2010.  Eleven   outbreaks (3,533 cases) related to imported food were reported during 1996 to 2014.

Reported disease rates have increased somewhat since 2012.  See graph:


Chronology of reported outbreaks:

  1. Outbreak (20 cases) among health-care workers at a hospital in Chicago, Illinois. Related to contaminated water
  1. Outbreak at a country club in New York State
  1. Outbreak in Florida associated with consumption of contaminated fresh raspberries.
  1. Multiple outbreaks (1,465 cases, 978 confirmed) in at least 15 states including New York (307), Florida (220), Massachusetts (170), New Jersey (103), South Carolina (38). Vehicles included raspberries and other fruit. The raspberries were imported from Guatemala and were thought to have been contaminated by water used in pesticide sprays.
  1. Outbreak (56 cases) at a hotel in Texas.
  1. Outbreaks (25 event-associated case clusters encompassing 370 cases) reported from eight states (California, Florida, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, Rhode Island, New York and Texas) and Canada (Ontario).
  1. Outbreaks (26 clusters encompassing 228 cases) reported from Virginia, Washington DC and Baltimore. Fresh basil and basil-pesto sauce implicated as the source. An additional 20 possible clusters (75 cases) were under investigation at the time.
  1. Outbreaks (over 1,700 cases during a five-month period) associated with raspberries, mesculun lettuce and basil. Fresh raspberries, imported from Guatemala were implicated in 19 of 21 outbreaks/ 70 sporadic cases confirmed in the United States and Canada during this period.
  1. Outbreak (57 cases) at a wedding in Massachusetts was associated with contaminated berries.
  1. Outbreaks (62 cases in 2outbreaks) in Missouri were associated with fresh basil, grown in either the United States of Mexico.
  1. Outbreak (54 cases) at a wedding in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was ascribed to imported (Guatemalan) raspberries in a wedding cake. This was the fifth year that outbreaks associated with Guatemalan raspberries had occurred in North America during the spring months.
  1. Outbreak (96 cases) at a residential facility in Pennsylvania was associated with contaminated raw snow peas imported from Guatemala
  1. Outbreak (90 cases) in Illinois and Texas was caused by contaminated basil and spring mix salad.
  1. Outbreak (70 cases) in Florida
  1. Outbreak (100 cases) in Georgia among persons who had visited an aquarium
  1.  Outbreak (643 cases) involving multiple locations was related to contaminated bagged salad imported from Mexico.
  1. Outbreak (202 cases, including 49 in Texas) involved multiple locations.
  1. 2015. Outbreak (72 cases) in Texas
  1.  Outbreak (495 cases) in 30 states was related to ingestion of contaminated cilantro imported from Mexico.
  1.  Outbreak (72 cases) in Texas.


  1. Berger SA. Cyclosporiasis: Global Status, 2017. Gideon e-books.

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Arboviruses in Queensland

As of 2017, Ross River disease and Barmah Forest disease continue to infect a considerable number of people in Queensland, Australia. In fact, rates of these two mosquito-borne viral infections in this state have changed little during the past 25 years. [1]   See graph:


  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017.  491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references.  Gideon e-books,

Note featured on ProMED