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Archive for the ‘Epidemiology’ Category

Salmonellosis in Australia

Rates of salmonellosis in Australia have been increasing for many decades, and have been considerably higher than those reported in other English-speaking countries since 2000.  In fact, as evident in the following chart, disease incidence in neighboring New Zealand, the United States, Ireland, Canada and the United States have either leveled off or even decreased during this period.[1,2]

References:

  1. Berger S. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2017. 324 pages, 302 graphs, 3,559 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Ross River Disease in Australia

In recent years, the incidence of Ross River disease in Australia has increased somewhat, with most cases reported from Queensland.  Rates in Western Australia and Northern Territory have not changed substantially. [1,2]  See graph:

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references, Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
  2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2017. 36 pages, 20 graphs, 401 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-pacific-arboviruses-global-status/

Note featured on ProMED

 

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Hong Kong

Reported rates of severe HFM disease and infection due to Enteroviruses (with the exception of EV-71) in Hong Kong have been increasing for the past ten years. [1,2]

References

  1. Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Hong Kong, 2017. Gideon e-books. 316 pages, 115 graphs, 718 references https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-hong-kong/

Note featured on ProMED

 

 

Venereal Diseases: Reporting Trends in Australia

Rates of gonorrhea and genital chlamydia infection in Australia have been increasing for several years  [1,2]  The following charts were generated by a tool in GIDEON which converts yearly incidence data into rates per 100,000, and combines graphs selected by the user. [3]   Note that trends in the United States parallel those of Australia, with lower rates for individual diseases reported in the latter. Rates (per 100,000)  of Granuloma Inguinale in Australia bear a striking resemblance to those reported in the U.S. a half-century earlier.

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2017. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  3. Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured in ProMED

 

Venereal Diseases in Canada

For several decades, rates of gonorrhea, syphilis and genital chlamydia infection in Canada and the United States have followed similar trends. [1,2]  As with many other countries, the incidence of gonorrhea in the region fell precipitously following the appearance of AIDS during the 1980’s, but have been rebounding since 2000.  The following chart was generated by a tool in GIDEON which converts yearly incidence data into rates per 100,000, and combines graphs selected by the user. [3]

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Canada, 2017.  452 pages, 114 graphs, 3,091 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-canada/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2017. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  3. Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Trichinosis from Bear Meat

356 published outbreaks of trichinosis are chronicled by Gideon (www.GideonOnline.com) .  Where relevant information is given, bear meat is specified as the food vehicle in 13.6% of these outbreaks – see chart below. [1,2]  (Additional details and primary references are available from Dr. Berger).

References:

  1. Berger SA. Gideon Guide to Outbreaks, 2017. 1818 pages, 5120 tables, 47454 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/outbreaks/
  2. Berger SA. Trichinosis: Global Status, 2017. 114 pages, 75 graphs, 1037 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/trichinosis-global-status/

Note featured in ProMED

Outbreak of Toxoplasmosis Associated with Ingestion of Venison

Recently, ProMED reported an outbreak of severe febrile illness 5 days following ingestion of venison (http://www.promedmail.org/post/20171026.5405515 )  In the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, these features are compatible with only a handful of infectious diseases. In 1980, a similar outbreak among American hunters was ascribed to acute toxoplasmosis. [1] The decision support module in Gideon (http://www.GideonOnline.com) also assigns a high ranking to toxoplasmosis.

Reference
———
1. Sacks JJ, Delgado DG, Lobel HO, Parker RL: Toxoplasmosis infection associated with eating undercooked venison. Am J Epidemiol. 1983; 118(6): 832-8; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6650484

Note featured on ProMED

Tick-borne Encephalitis in France

The first case of Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in France was reported in 1968. Approximately 30 cases  were reported during 1968 to 1997 (virtually all from Alsace); and 64 cases (0 fatal) were reported in  the Alsace region during 1968 to 2005.  54 cases were confirmed nationwide during 2013 to 2016 – 48 autochthonous (including 43 in the Alsace region and 5 in the Alpine region) and 6 imported.

Cases were reported from Faverges and Grenoble in 2002, the Bordeaux area in 2006, and Strasbourg in 2016 (publication year).

Although rates in France are relatively low in comparison to those of other Western European countries, the yearly incidence of TBE almost trippled between 2014 to 2016.

 

Seroprevalence surveys:

1996 / individuals in eastern France / 8%

1996 / individuals in Lorraine / 1.6%

2008 (publication year) / workers exposed to tick bites in Eastern France / 3.4%

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of France, 2017. 671 pages, 356 graphs, 2,588 references Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-france/
  2. Berger SA. Tick-borne Encephalitis: Global Status, 2017. 75 pages, 45 graphs, 674 references Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/tick-borne-encephalitis-global-status/

Note featured in ProMED

 

Varicella vs. Monkeypox

Outbreaks of varicella and monkeypox in Africa are occasionally mistaken for “smallpox”   The following table was generated by an interactive tool in Gideon (www.GideonOnline.com) which allows users to generate custom charts that contrast clinical features, drug spectra or microbial phenotypes.

 

 

 

Rabies and Leishmaniasis in Algeria

Although high rates of rabies and leishmaniasis in Boghni district, Algeria could reflect a common dog reservoir (http://www.promedmail.org/post/5379441) , reporting statistics on a national level do not suggest that the diseases are related.  See chart:

Note featured in ProMED

 

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