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Archive for the ‘Epidemiology’ Category

Campylobacteriosis in New Zealand

The following background information on campylobacteriosis in New Zealand is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1-2]  (primary references available on request)

The incidence of campylobacteriosis exceeds that of any other reportable disease in New Zealand.  In fact, Campylobacteriosis accounted for 42.5% of all notified cases of infectious disease in 2010.  Highest rates are reported during late spring and early summer (November to January).  Rates on South Island are correlated with lower socio-economic level, proportion of persons ages 25 to 44 and density of fresh food outlets. The Far North and much of the rural North Island report relatively low disease incidence during summer, with minimal inter-seasonal variation. Highest summer incidence and inter-seasonal variation are reported in Christchurch, Dunedin, much of the South Island, Wellington and Upper Hutt.  47% of campylobacteriosis cases are acquired from food, 28% direct animal contact, 7% overseas travel, 4% person-to-person transmission and 3% water-related.

The following graph compares the yearly reported incidence of six diseases associated with diarrhea.  Note that giardiasis is more common than salmonellosis, shigellosis and VTEC (verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli) infections in this country.  Significantly, 2,056 patients were hospitalized for Guillain-Barre syndrome (a condition which often complicated campylobacteriosis) during 1988 to 2010.  Decreasing rates of campylobacteriosis since 2007 were ascribed to efficient disease control among poultry.

In the second graph, I’ve contrasted rates of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand with those of other English-speaking countries.

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of New Zealand, 2018. 496 pages , 240 graphs , 839 references.  Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-new-zealand/
  2. Berger S. Campylobacteriosis – Global Status, 2018. 150 pages , 100 graphs , 1,529 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/campylobacteriosis-global-status/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

 

 

Zoonotic Disease Deaths in the United States

With the exception of salmonellosis, deaths from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) * have exceeded those of other reportable zoonoses in the United States for most of the past six decades. [1,2]    Rabies was the predominant cause of zoonotic death prior to 1950; Lyme disease and West Nile fever since 2000.

* Since 2010, reporting of “Rocky Mountain spotted fever” has been broadened to include related diseases –  under the heading “Spotted fever rickettsiosis”

 

References:

1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 3,166 pages , 510 graphs , 17,038 references. Gideon e-books,   https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/

2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Escherichia Coli Enteritis in Ireland

Rates of disease due to Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in Ireland have increased dramatically since 2010, and are currently eight-fold those reported in the United States.  Significantly, corresponding rates of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and E. coli O157 infection in Ireland have changed little during this period. [1-3]

References:

  1. Berger S. Escherichia coli Diarrhea: Global Status, 2018. 232 pages , 157 graphs , 4,551 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/escherichia-coli-diarrhea-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Ireland and Northern Ireland, 2018.  416 pages , 224 graphs , 713 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-ireland-and-northern-ireland/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Disease Outbreaks due to Sprouts

As of June, 2018 the Gideon database (www.GideonOnline.com) chronicles 22,777 published Infectious Diseases outbreaks.  Sprouts were implicated in 13.4% of outbreaks which specify a disease vehicle (5.2% of salmonellosis outbreaks).  Salmonellae were responsible for 83% of outbreaks associated with sprouts.  The remainder were caused by Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes or Bacillus cereus. [1]

References:

1 Berger S. Gideon Guide to Outbreaks, 2018. 2,011 pages, 5,272 tables, 51,622 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/outbreaks/

Japanese Encephalitis in Assam State

Since 2008, data regarding Japanese Encephalitis in India have distinguished between Japanese encephalitis [JE] and Acute encephalitis syndrome [AES].  Cases of the latter have been variously ascribed to Chandipura, enteroviral infection, scrub typhus and lychee fruit intoxication.  [1,2]    In 1963, 22% of individuals in Assam (Lakhimpur and Darrang districts) were seropositive toward JE virus.  Surveys conducted during 2006 to 2014 found that Japanese encephalitis was responsible for 30% to 78% of acute encephalitis cases in Assam.  A study published in 2007 found that 19.3% of patients with Japanese encephalitis in Assam State have concurrent neurocysticercosis.  In the following chart, I’ve compared reported incidence for these two conditions in India and in Assam State. [3]

References:

  1. Berger SA. Japanese Encephalitis: Global Status, 2018. 96 pages , 66 graphs , 1,120 references  Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/japanese-encephalitis-global-status/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of India, 2018. 585 pages , 96 graphs , 6,487 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-india/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Mayaro Virus Disease and Travel

As of April, 2018 eleven cases of travel-associated Mayaro virus infection have been reported (see chart below). [1,2]  The current report on ProMED is the third to have originated in Peru.  A user-generated Gideon chart comparing the clinical features of several mosquito-borne viral diseases of Peru (Dengue, Chikungunya, Oropouche, Mayaro, Group C viruses and Zika) is also displayed.

                                                            Note:  Group C  zoonotic viruses of Peru = Ataqui, Iataya, Murutucu, Caraparu and Apeu

       References:

  1. Berger SA. Gideon Guide to Cross Border Infections, 2018. 237 pages, 133 tables, 4,061 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/travel/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Peru, 2018. 367 pages, 100 graphs, 1,089 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-peru/

Malaria Rates in Central America

Although CDC declared that there is no risk for malaria to American travelers in Costa Rica as of 2014, six of eleven cases reported by the latter in 2017 were classified as “autochthonous”. [1]  For much of the past fifty years, Costa Rica has reported the lowest rates of malaria in Central America; and rates for the entire region have decreased dramatically since 2000 [2,3]

References:

  1. https://www.ministeriodesalud.go.cr/index.php/vigilancia-de-la-salud/boletines/enfermedades-de-transmision-vectorial-2017/3443-boletin-epidemiologico-no-31-2017-zika-chikungunya-y-dengue/file
  2. Berger SA. Malaria: Global Status, 2018. 497 pages, 557 graphs, 4,802 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/malaria-global-status/
  3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Costa Rica, 2018. 328 pages, 120 graphs, 371 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-costa-rica/

Note featured on ProMED

Typhoid Outbreaks in the United States: 1843 to 2017

The following chart summarizes 69 outbreaks of typhoid reported in the United States during 1843 to 2017. [1.2]  Also included are several off-shore outbreaks which involved American citizens.  (primary references are available from the author).

References:

  1. Berger S.  Gideon Guide to Outbreaks, 2018. 1,900 pages, 5,246 tables, 50,908 references.  Gideon e-books. https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/outbreaks/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 1,254 pages, 510 graphs, 16,672 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/

 

Tick- and Mosquito-borne Diseases: Trends in the United States

The following data are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1]  Charts were created using an interactive tool driven by over 30,000 base graphs in the program. [2]

Chart 1 contrasts trends for reported incidence of Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF).  Note that while rates of Lyme disease in 2016 are 15-fold those reported in 1987, those of RMSF increased by a factor of seven.  The number of fatal cases for both diseases have remained similar in recent years (i.e., the relative case-fatality rate of Lyme disease has decreased)

Chart 2 summarizes incidence data for a variety of tick-borne and mosquito-borne infections.  Note that rates of Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Jamestown Canyon virus infection and Powassan encephalitis have increased since the year 2000.  The incidence of LaCrosse encephalitis has decreased, while that of California encephalitis is largely unchanged.

Charts 3 and 4 demonstrate that incidence and reported deaths for Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile fever have changed little in recent years.

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 1,254 pages, 510 graphs, 16,672 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

HTLV Infection in Australia

The following background information on HTLV infection in Australia is abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

The first report of adult T-cell leukemia / lymphoma related to HTLV-1 infection in an Australian Aborigine was published in 1991.  Three such cases had been reported in non-Aboriginal Australians as of 1993. The first report of tropical spastic paraparesis related to HTLV-I infection in an Australian Aborigine was published in 1993; and the first report of HTLV-II infection in Australia was published in 1994.

The risk of a transfused patient developing HTLV-I infection from un-screened blood was estimated at 1 in 370,000, and the risk of developing HTLV-I disease at 1 in 9-to-15 million (1993 to 1995).  The following screenshot summarizes published sero-prevalence surveys of HTLV infection in Australia. (primary references available from the authors).

References:

  1. Berger S. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Infections: Global Status, 2018. 72 pages, 1,133 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/human-t-lymphotropic-virus-infections-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2018. 505 pages, 164 graphs, 3,207 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/

Note featured on ProMED

 

 

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