Salmonellosis Rates in Scandinavia

Friday, December 13th, 2013

Reported rates of salmonellosis among the Scandinavian countries are similar, and consistently higher than those of the United States [1,2] – see graph [3]

Salmonella-Scandinavia

References:
1. Berger SA. Samonellosis: Global Status, 2013. 255 pages, 300 graphs, 2510 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2013. 1119 pages, 470 graphs, 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Salmonella in Finland

Wednesday, July 25th, 2012

Although Campylobacter has replaced Salmonella as the most commonly reported agent of diarrhea in Finland, salmonellosis rates remain higher than those reported by other Scandinavian countries. [1,2] See graphs [3]

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Finland, 2012. 420 pages, 127 graphs, 1558 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-finland/
2. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2012. 252 pages, 300 graphs, 2297 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Note featured on ProMED

Salmonellosis in Italy

Sunday, July 22nd, 2012

The following background data on salmonellosis in Italy are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

Since 1990, decreasing rates of salmonellosis in Italy have been paralleled by a relative decrease in cases caused by Salmonella enteritidis – see graph [3] The number of salmonellosis outbreaks has also declined, from a high of 552 (3,495 cases) in 1992, to 107 (575 cases) in 2010.

Prevalence surveys:
19.2% of childhood diarrhea episodes in Italy
7.3% of pediatric hospitalizations for diarrhea in Rome (1985 publication)
22.9% of children with gastroenteritis presenting to a single hospital (Sondrio Province, Lombardi, 2003 to 2006)
34% of foodborne outbreaks in the Piedmont region (1,250 outbreaks of salmonellosis during 2002 to 2009)
11.1% of patients with acute diarrhea (2005)
0% of cheeses (2004)
0% of ready-to-eat salads from process lots (2006 to 2008)
2.2% of foods of animal origin (2001 to 2002)

Notable outbreaks:
1966 (publication year) – An outbreak of typhoid (302 cases) and other Salmonella infection s (60 cases) was reported.
1966 – An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection was reported in Biella.
1974 (publication year) – An outbreak of Salmonella agona infection was reported.
1974 (publication year) – An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection was reported.
1974 (publication year) – An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection was reported in the area of Paterno (Catania).
1975 – An outbreak (23 cases) of Salmonella oranienburg infection in Rome was associated with a commercial air flight.
1982 – An outbreak (245 cases) of Salmonella napoli infection in England and Wales was caused by contaminated chocolate bars imported from Italy.
1987 – An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection was reported in Palermo.
1987 – Outbreaks (2 outbreaks) of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kottbus infection were reported in Lombardy.
1987 to 1988 – An outbreak (110 cases) of Salmonella wien infection was reported in a neonatal unit in Palermo.
1987 to 1988 – An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infections in Isernia was related to consumption of salsicce.
1989 to 1991 – Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bovismorbificans were reported in southern Italy.
1991 – Outbreaks (33 outbreaks) of egg-related Salmonella enteritidis infection were reported in northern and central Italy.
1993 (publication year) – An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection was reported in a nursing home.
1994 – An outbreak (448 cases) of Salmonella hadar infection was associated with a canteen at a building site in central Italy.
1995 – An outbreak (83 cases) of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection in the Lombardy region was ascribed to contaminated salami.
1997 – An outbreak (29 cases, 12 hospitalized, 1 fatal) of Salmonella hadar infection was reported from a restaurant in Rimini – ascribed to roast rabbit.
1997 – An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis PT3 infection was reported in northeastern Sardinia.
1998 (publication year) – An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 infection in southern Italy was related to consumption of an egg-based dessert.
1998 – An outbreak (7 infants) of Salmonella bongori infection was reported in Sicily – source unknown.
1998 – An outbreak (9 cases) of Salmonella enteritidis infection was related to consumption of a commercially produced cheese.
1998 – An outbreak (13 cases) of Salmonella blockley infection in Germany was caused by eel imported from Italy.
1998 – An outbreak (several hundred cases) of Salmonella enteritidis infection in Benvenuto was associated with iced cake served at a religious festival.
1998 – An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection among Japanese travelers returning from Italy was related to consumption of scrambled eggs in a hotel in Rome.
2000 (publication year) – An outbreak (113 cases) of Salmonella enteritidis infection in Bari was associated with an egg-based ice cream served at a wedding party.
2004 – An outbreak (63 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104A infection in the Rome region was associated with traditional pork salami.
2005 – An outbreak (22 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 infection in Denmark was caused by raw beef carpacio imported from Italy.
2005 – An outbreak (153 cases) of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infection was reported among school children in Florence.
2005 – An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar. enteritidis infection in Bari was ascribed to contaminated rice arancini.
2006 – An outbreak (13 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Sweden was caused by contaminated salami imported from Italy.
2007 – An outbreak (56 cases) of salmonellosis related to contaminated spaghetti at a hotel in Spain involved tourists from France, Italy, Spain, Romania, Czech Republic and Albania.
2007 – An outbreak (16 cases) of Salmonella enteritidis infection in Sicily was associated with eggs used to prepare pastry for a barbecue.
2008 – An outbreak (30 cases) of salmonellosis was reported among British tourists at a hotel in Brescia.
2010 – An outbreak (500 cases) of Salmonella enterica infection in France was related to ingestion of contaminated hamburger imported from Italy.
2011 – An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar. Strathcona infections in Denmark (43 cases), Germany (14 cases) and Austria (1 case) was related to contaminated tomatoes imported from Italy.
2012 (publication year) – An outbreak of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Berta infection was reported.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2012. 486 pages, 113 graphs, 2696 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
2. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status.; Gideon e-books, 252 pages, 300 graphs, 2297 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Note featured on ProMED

Salmonellosis in Thailand

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

The following review of salmonellosis in Thailand is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

44,078 isolates of Salmonella from human sources were registered in Thailand during 1993 to 2002.
- The most common serovar. from human sources was Salmonella enterica Weltevreden (12.5% of isolates); and the most common source for this serovar. appeared to be frozen seafood.
- Salmonella Kedougou is a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand, especially during warmer periods.
- During 1993 to 2002, Salmonella enteritidis accounted for 11.4% of human isolates, and S. typhimurium for 5.3%.

Prevalence surveys:
4% of children hospitalized for diarrhea in Chiang Mai (1983 to 1984)
18% of dysentery among children up to age 12 years (Bangkok region, 2002 publication)
6% of children ages 3 months to 5 years with diarrhea, and 9% of asymptomatic controls (rural Thailand, 2010 publication)
4% of travelers’ diarrhea in Phuket (2005 to 2006)
19.7% of AIDS-associated diarrhea (Salmonella B, Nothaburi, 1996)
15.5% of AIDS patients with diarrhea (Bangkok, 1996 publication)
2.6% of AIDS patients in Northern Thailand presenting with pneumonia had Salmonella bacteremia (1996 to 2002)
15% of blood-stream infections among HIV-positive patients (Salmonella spp, Bangkok, 2004 to 2008)
22% of diarrhea episodes among US soldiers deployed in Nakhon Sri Thammarat (2000) and Phitsanulok (2001)
4% of chickens, 9% of slaughtered chickens and 57% of marketed chicken; 6% of pigs, 28% of slaughtered pigs and 29% of pork; 3% of dairy cows (Chiangmai and Lampoon, 2000 to 2003)
61% of retail meat and poultry samples in Bangkok – the most common serotypes were Anatum, Corvallis and Derby (2003 publication)
21% of uncooked seafood samples from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok (Salmonella enterica, 2008)
18% of food, 7% of drinking water and 11% of food handlers (stool samples) in open markets of Khon Kaen (2002)

Notable outbreaks:
1976 to 1978 – An outbreak of Salmonella krefeld gastroenteritis was reported primarily among children, nationwide.
1990 – An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infection involving most of the country was related to contamination from chickens.
1990 – An outbreak (5 cases) of Salmonella Ohio infection in Bangkok was caused by contamination of ham served on a commercial airline flight.
1991 (publication year) – An outbreak (40 cases) of Salmonella urbana infection in neonatal nurseries of a hospital in Bangkok was caused by a contaminated wash basin.
2001 – An outbreak of Salmonella Schwarzengrund infections in Denmark and the United States was traced to contaminated chickens in Thailand.
2005 – An outbreak of gastroenteritis at a school in Bangkok was ascribed to both Salmonella and Shigella infections.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseaseds of Thailand, 2012. 496 pages, 164 graphs, 2316 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
2. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2012. 252 pages, 300 graphs, 2297 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/

Salmonellosis in Spain

Saturday, June 23rd, 2012

Rates of salmonellosis in Spain have followed an undulating pattern for over 30 years, and are similar to those of campylobacteriosis (see graph) [1-3] In the following table, I’ve summarized published studies of the prevalence of Salmonella in this country. Primary references are available on request.

Prevalence surveys:
10.2% of patients with gastroenteritis (Madrid, 1980 to 1983)
29.4% of bacterial gastroenteritis cases in adults (2007 publication)
41% of gastroenteritis outbreaks with known etiology in Catalonia (2006)
84% of all food-related outbreaks reported during 1990 to 1992
65.7% of food poisoning outbreaks in the Basque Autonomous Community during 1984 to 1986
31.1% of childhood (ages 1 month to 14 years) gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Girona (2007 publication)
5.1% of children (<5 years) admitted for gastroenteritis to a hospital in Albacete (2005 to 2008)
4% of diarrhea among children seen at an emergency room in Valencia (2005)
10% of ovine flocks in northern Spain (1999 to 2003)
2.9% of free-ranging poultry farms in the Basque country (2007 publication)
0% of greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) chicks in the Ebro Delta (2010)
1.3% of retail fruit and vegetable samples in Lleida (Catalonia, 2005 to 2006)
1.2% of smoked salmon samples, 1.5% of frozen chicken croquettes, 2% of cooked ham samples, and 11.1% of cured dried sausage samples (Barcelona, 2008 publication)
23.7% of raw materials and 0% of final product at factories manufacturing fuet (traditional fermented sausage, 2011 publication)
0% of home-made tiger nut beverages in Valencia (2012 publication)

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Spain, 2012. 557 pages, 194 graphs, 2850 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-spain/
2. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2012. 252 pages, 300 graphs, 2297 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Salmonellosis in Canada

Sunday, March 18th, 2012

Rates of salmonellosis in Canada are strikingly similar to those of giardiasis, and low in comparison with rates reported by the other major English-speaking countries. [1-3] [1-3] See graphs:

References:
1. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Canada, 2012. 496 pp, 107 graphs, 3130 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-canada/
3. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2012. 252 pp, 300 graphs, 2297 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/

Deaths Due to Food-borne Listeria

Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

Although Listeria monocytogenes is a relatively uncommon cause of food-borne infection in the United States, this species is associated with a disproportionate mortality rate. In recent years, Salmonella and Listeria have been associated with more cases of fatal bacterial food related disease than any other agent, despite the the relative rarity of listeriosis as a disease. [1,2] In fact, case-fatality rates of the most common agent, Salmonella, have not paralleled increases in disease incidence. See graphs 1 and 2.

(See the Graph tool tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps )

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2011. 1030 pp, 464 graphs, 8237 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2011. 93 pp, 103 graphs, 487 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/

Note disussed in Promed

Salmonellosis in Australia

Wednesday, February 9th, 2011

A recent outbreak in Adelaide reminds us that the salmonellosis rates in Australia have been increasing for more than five decades. In contrast, the incidence of this disease in other English-speaking countries has leveled off, or even decreased, since the 1990′s. 1,2 [see graph]

References:
1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2011, 503 pp. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger S. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2011, 245 pp. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/

Salmonellosis – U.K. and International Outbreaks

Friday, September 24th, 2010

Recent cross-border oubreaks belie the fact that salmonellosis activity in the United Kingdom has actually declined in recent years. In fact, since 1997, reporting rates for England, Scotland and Wales have been similar to the lower figures which had existed in Ireland and Northern Ireland. The following data are extracted from the Gideon e-book series. [1-3]

The following chronlogy of earlier international salmonellosis outbreaks (not including clusters among tourists) is extracted from reference [4]:

Outbreaks involving two or more countries (primary references available on request)
1973 (publication year) – An international outbreak of Salmonella agona infection was reported.
1973 to 1974 – An outbreak (80 cases in the U.S. and 39 in Canada) of Salmonella Eastborne infection was caused by contaminated chocolate.
1982 – An outbreak (245 cases) of Salmonella napoli infection in England and Wales was caused by contaminated chocolate bars imported from Italy.
1991 – An outbreak (400 cases or more) of Salmonella poona infection in the United States and Canada was caused by contaminated American and Central American cantaloupe.
1995 – An outbreak (27 cases in the U.K.) of Salmonella agona infection was caused by a savoury snack imported from Israel.
1995 – An outbreak ( 242 cases, approximate) in the United States and Finland of Salmonella serotype Stanley infection was traced to Alfalfa sprouts.
1996 to 1997 – An outbreak (22 cases) of S. enterica serotype Anatum infection was caused by contaminated dried formula milk – resulting in 13 cases in England, 4 Scotland, 4 France and 1 Belgium.
1997 – An outbreak of S. livingstone infection was reported in Western Europe – several of the cases were acquired abroad, notably in Tunisia.
1997 – An outbreak (24 cases) of Salmonella serogroup Saphra infection in California was associated with imported Mexican cantaloupe.
1997 to 1998 – An outbreak of Salmonella Newport infection associated with contaminated cured ham was reported in the United Kingdom and Finland.
1998 – Outbreaks of Salmonella blockley infection were reported in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom – smoked eel implicated in some countries.
1999 – An outbreak (275 cases) of Salmonella paratyphi B infection was reported among European tourists who visited Turkey during the summer of 1999.
1999 – An outbreak (400 cases or more, 21 hospitalized) of Salmonella muenchen infection from orange juice affected 25 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces (22 cases).
2000 – Outbreaks of Salmonella typhimurium DT204b infection (total 396 cases) which may have been related occurred in Iceland, England and Wales, the Netherlands, Scotland and Germany. Contaminated lettuce was implicated.
2000 to 2001 – An outbreak (168 cases, total) of S. enteritidis phage type 30 infection (157 cases in Canada, 11 in the United States) was caused by contaminated raw almonds.
2000 to 2002 – Outbreaks (148 cases, total) of Salmonella poona infection (47 cases in 2000, 50 in 2001, 58 in 2002) from imported Mexican cantaloupe were reported in multiple American states and Canada.
2001 – Outbreaks of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 infection caused by a batch of imported Turkish halvah were reported in Australia and Sweden. Contaminated halvah was also identified in Germany, Norway and the United Kingdom.
2001 – An outbreak (99 total cases) of Salmonella Stanley infection in Australia (60 cases) and Canada (33 cases) was associated with contaminated peanuts imported from China.
2001 – An outbreak of Salmonella oranienburg due to contaminated German chocolate affected several European countries.
2001 – An outbreak (303 cases) of Salmonella enteritidis anaerogenic PT 14b infection was reported among Norwegian, Finish and Swedish tourists returning from Crete and Karpathos. The probable source was contaminated poultry.
2001 – An outbreak of Salmonella Schwarzenground infections in Denmark and the United States was traced to contaminated chickens in Thailand.
2003 – Outbreaks of Salmonella Montevideo infection in Australia and New Zealand were caused by contaminated sesame seed products (Tahini and Halva) imported from Egypt and Lebanon.
2004 – Raw almonds contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis were recalled by the manufacturer from China, Taiwan, Democratic Republic of Korea, France, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico and the United Kingdom.
2004 – Ruccola lettuce contaminated with Salmonella Thompson was identified in Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
2005 – An outbreak (5 cases, total) of Salomonella enterica serotype Thompson infection (3 cases in Canada and 2 in United States) was caused by handling contaminated pet treats.
2005 – An outbreak (48 cases, total) of Salmonella stoubridge infection in Sweden (6 cases), Switzerland (3), Germany (2), Austria (5), United Kingdom (3) and France (27) was caused by unpasteurized French soft cheese.
2005 – An outbreak (178 cases) of Salmonella Goldcoast infection in Majorca affected tourists from Scotland (37), Ireland (6), Sweden (6), Norway (8), Denmark (3), Germany (20) and Finland (4).
2005 – An outbreak (22 cases) of Salmonella typhimurum DT 104 infection in Denmark was caused by raw beef carpacio imported from Italy.
2006 – An outbreak (13 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Sweden was caused by contaminated salami imported from Italy.
2007 – An outbreak (10 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Denmark (6 cases) and Norway (4 cases) was caused by imported Spanish sausage.
2007 – An outbreak (63 cases) of Salmonella senftenberg infection in England and Wales (51 cases), Denmark (11) and the Netherlands (2) was ascribed to contaminated basil imported from Israel. Subsequent testing of local batches of basil failed to demonstrate the organism.
2007 – An outbreak (45 cases, total) of Salmonella Weltevreden infections in Norway (19 cases), Denmark (19 cases) and Finland (7 cases) was associated with alfalfa sprouts distributed from Denmark. 2007 – An outbreak (354 cases) of Salmonella paratyphi B variant Java (Salmonella Java) infection in Netherlands (12 cases), Sweden (172), Norway (25), Ireland (9), Hungary (3), Finland (9), Denmark (40) and Austria (2) was ascribed to contaminated baby spinach.
2008 – An outbreak (59 cases) of Salmonella Litchfield infection in 16 American states (50 cases) and Canada (9 cases) was caused by contaminated melon from Honduras.
2008 – An outbreak (141 cases) of Salmonella serotype Agona infection in England (80 cases), Wales (10), Ireland (11) , Northern Ireland (1) , Scotland (31) Sweden (2), France (1) and Finland (1) was ascribed to contaminated commercial sandwiches.
2008 – An outbreak (74 cases) of Salmonella enterica serotype poona infection included 26 cases in Canada and 48 in the United States.
2008 – An outbreak (49 cases) of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium U288 infection from contaminated pork products included 37 cases (4 fatal) in Denmark, 10 in Norway and 2 in Sweden.
2008 to 2010 – An outbreak (400 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium DT 191a infections in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland was related to pet reptiles which were fed with contaminated frozen mice. Subsequent outbreak cases (34) were reported in multiple American states in 2010.
2009 – An outbreak (137 cases) of Salmonella oranienburg infection included 38 cases in the United Kingdom, 85 in the United States, 7 in Canada and 7 in Scotland.
2009 – An outbreak (124 cases in the United States and 12 in Canada) of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections was ascribed to possible contamination of shredded lettuce.
2010 – An outbreak (14 cases) of Salmonella urbana infection included cases in in Finland, the Czech Republic and Latvia.

1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 956 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Ireland and Northern Ireland, 433 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-ireland-and-northern-ireland/
3. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 237 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
4. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the World, 929 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-world/

Salmonellosis in Denmark

Thursday, July 10th, 2008

An ongoing outbreak in Denmark belies the fact that salmonellosis rates in Scandinavia have remained fairly constant during the past decade. In the attached graph rates for the United States are added for comparison. Some additional background data on salmonellosis in Denmark – source www.GideonOnline.com (more…)