Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Australia: Barmah Forest Disease vs. Ross River Disease

Monday, April 21st, 2014

Rates of Barmah Forest disease in Queensland, and Australia as a whole, have now overtaken those of Ross River disease [1-3] – see graph

BFD-RRF

1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2014. 33 pages, 20 graphs, 336 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-pacific-arboviruses-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Pasteurellosis in England and Wales

Sunday, April 20th, 2014

Few countries publish reports of Pasteurella multocida infection on a national level. The incidence of human pasteurellosis in the United Kingdom increased from 172 cases in 1972, to 426 in 2006 and 466 in 2007. Five fatal cases were reported during 1993 to 2006. Reporting trends for P. multicida infection in England and Wales are depicted in the following graph:

Pmultocida-UK

Reference:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2014. 1,154 pages, 959 graphs, 4,208 references. Gideon e-books,

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Botulism in Italy

Sunday, March 30th, 2014

The following background information of botulism in Italy was abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references are available on request).

Botulism has been a notifiable disease in Italy since 1975. Mean disease rates are similar to those reported in the United States – see graph [3] :

Botulism-Italy

Vegetable preserves are implicated in 57% of cases, and ham and sausage in 15%. Recent outbreaks have been related to mushrooms in oil, pickled olives, fresh-cheese mascarpone and roasted eggplant in oil.

In 2012, a man in England acquired botulism from imported Italian olives.

Three cases of wound botulism were reported during 1988 to 1998; and the first report of wound botulism in an injecting drug user was published in 2010.

26 cases of infant botulism (and 3 of adult intestinal botulism) were reported during 1984 to 2006 (including 6 cases due to Clostridium butyricum toxin). Type A botulism accounted for 4 casers and type B for 17.

Only two outbreaks (5 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism were reported in Italy during 1903 to 1922. Five outbreaks were reported in 1998 alone.

Notable outbreaks:
1993 – Outbreaks (7 cases, in two outbreaks) of botulism were associated with commercially prepared roasted eggplant in oil.
1995 (publication year) – An outbreak was associated with consumption of home-cured ham.
1996 – An outbreak (8 cases) was ascribed to “tiramisu” which contained contaminated mascarpone cream cheese.
2004 – An outbreak (25 cases, 0 fatal) was caused by green olives served by a restaurant in Molise.
2011 – An outbreak (3 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism in Finland was caused by imported jarred olives from Italy.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2014. 544 pages, 114 graphs, 3390 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
2. Berger SA. Botulism: Global Status, 2014. 86 pages, 90 graphs, 704 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/botulism-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Listeriosis in Scandinavia

Thursday, February 27th, 2014

Rates of listeriosis have been increasing in Scandinavia for over 20 years, and are currrently 2- to 5-fold those reported in the United States – see graph (black arrow = United States) [1-3]

ListeriaSweden

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2014. 484 pages, 137 graphs, 2,231 references Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2014. 101 pages, 105 graphs, 746 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Bacterial Diarrhea in Australia

Wednesday, February 26th, 2014

Notwithstanding recent outbreaks among men-who-have-sex-with-men, the incidence of shigellosis in Australia has remained remarkably constant for over eighty years. In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates in Australia and New Zealand with those reported in the United States. [1-3]

ShigANU

In fact, most other forms of bacterial diarrhea have become far more common than shigellosis in Australia – see graph:

AustDiarrhea

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Shigellosis: Global Status, 2014.
162 pages, 199 graphs, 1,076 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/shigellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

MMRV – Deaths in the United States

Friday, February 21st, 2014

Death rates from varicella and other vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. decreased dramatically as a result of widespread vaccination. [1] In the following graph, arrows indicate the years that varicella (blue) and measles (yellow) vaccines were introduced into the standard vaccine schedule. [2]

MMRV-Deaths

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1145 pages, 478 graphs, 12294 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool – see http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom

Friday, February 14th, 2014

The following background data on Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (Primary references available from author)

England and Wales:
288 cases were reported through laboratory testing during 1989 to 2002, with decreasing incidence since the 1990′s (see graph). The annual disease rate is estimated at 0.2 per 100,000.

EW-Toxocara

Prevalence surveys:
25% of dog hair samples (2003 publication)
7.2% of suburban dogs (1977 publication)
2% to 4% of dogs associated with a charity for deaf persons. (Bucks, 2007 publication)
1.4% of dogs with gastrointestinal disease (2003 to 2005)
91% of farm cats (1989)
53.3% of feral cats in London and Sheffield (1981 publication)
11.5% of domestic cats in London (1981 publication)
34.8% of stray urban cats (1978 to 1980)
16% of healthy kittens (2009 publication)
55.9% to 61.6% of foxes (2003 publication)
13.3% of soil samples in Leeds (1976)
5.2% of public parks and private gardens in London (1975)
66% of London parks (1984 to 1985)
6.3 of soil samples from London parks and gardens (1991 publication)

Seroprevalence surveys:
2.0% to 2.6%; 15.7% of dog breeders (1978)
47% of cull ewes in Powys and Gwent (2006 publication)
7% to 47% of sheep in Wales (2006 publication)

Scotland:
The reported incidence of toxocariasis varies from 0 to 4 cases per year (1992 to 2012).

Prevalence surveys:
20.9% of stray dogs in Glasgow (1975 to 1977)
12% of parks in Glasgow (1980)
33% of stray cats (1980)

Toxocara cati has also been identified in wild cats in northeastern Scotland.

Northern Ireland:
Although no cases of toxocariasis were reported during 2001 to 2012, the disease is relatively common among both humans and animals in neighboring Republic of Ireland.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2013. 1106 pages, 946 graphs, 3,801 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Toxocariasis: Global Status, 2013. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/toxocariasis-global-status/

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Varicella – Thailand vs. United States

Monday, February 10th, 2014

An increasing incidence of varicella in Thailand is almost the mirror image of American data (see graph [1]).

Thailand-Varicella

In fact, rates in the United States had already been decreasing for several years before the introduction of routine vaccination. Seroprevalence studies in the two populations are not dissimilar, and the striking difference in disease rates are difficult to explain. The following data are extracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [2-4] (Primary references are available on request.)

Varicella – seroprevalence surveys:

United States
93.6% for persons ages 6 to 19 years, and 98.0% for persons ages 20 to 49 years (1999 to 2004)
84% to 95% of women of child bearing age in New York City (1976 publication)
99.7% of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in California, and 97.9% attending an antenatal clinic in Philadelphia. Only 6.8% and 17.4% of women who self-reported negative or uncertain varicella history were seronegative. (2007 publication)
77% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Buffalo, New York, 2005 to 2009)
98% of child-care providers in Seattle Washington (1996 publication)
88.1% of post-vaccination health-care workers (2013 publication)
95.9% of Coast Guard recruits (2003 publication)
82% of Somali refugees living in Minnesota (2007 publication)
97% of U.S.-bound refugees (2013 publication)
92% of Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas (2011 publication)

Thailand
10% of infants; 24% pre-school; 67% school children; 74% young adults; 98% over age 30 (1994, Bangkok area)
15.5% in the age group 9 months to 4 years; 75.9% in the age group 20 to 29 years (1997 to 1998, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Had Yai)
82.3% of medical students in a hospital (Pratumthani, 2006 to 2007)
97.6% of medical students (2012 publication)

References:
1. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2014. 516 pages, 165 graphs 2659 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1119 pages 470 graphs 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
4. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2014. 117 pages 132 graphs 565 references http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/

Leprosy in Nigeria

Sunday, November 17th, 2013

Leprosy rates in Nigeria have been decreasing slowly since the 1990′s, and are similar to those of surrounding countries and Africa as a whole. [1,2] See graph [3]:

Leprosy-Africa

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Nigeria, 2013. 442 pages, 62 graphs, 2519 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-nigeria/
2. Berger SA. Leprosy: Global status, 2013. 238 pages, 377 graphs, 276 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leprosy-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Fatal Plague in Madagascar

Saturday, October 19th, 2013

Madagascar accounts for most plague deaths in the world – see graph

plague deaths