GIDEON blog

Free 15 Day Trial Latest Updates Video Tutorials
Subscribe to Blog ,

Update: August 28, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 26 to August 28, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (7 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (230 updates)

  • 155 Clinical notes
  • 25 Diseases
  • 49 Country notes
  • 1 New Disease Synonym Added
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (47 updates)

  • 2 Interacting drugs – New
  • 45 Drug interactions – New

Microbiology – Bacteria (5 updates)

  • 2 New Bacteria Added
  • 1 Bacteria
  • 1 Microbes – New
  • 1 Microbes – Update

Update: August 26, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 24 to August 26, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (6 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (167 updates)

  • 1 Clinical note
  • 59 Diseases
  • 106 Country notes
  • 1 New Disease Synonym Added
  • Map

Tularemia Deaths in the United States

Although tularemia is more common than plague in the United States, the case-fatality rate is higher for the latter.  Deaths reported for both diseases have changed little in five decades, with the number of tularemia deaths similar to the number of plague deaths in most years.  See graphs

Plague Tularemia

Tularemia Deaths

Reference:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2015.  1,208 pages, 483 graphs, 13,730 references. Gideon e-books, www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/

Update: August 24, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 22 to August 24, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (2 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (15 updates)

  • 6 Diseases
  • 9 Country notes
  • Map

Update: August 22, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 20 to August 22, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (7 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (141 updates)

  • 46 Diseases
  • 95 Country notes
  • Map

Microbiology – Bacteria (1 updates)

  • 1 Bacteria

Microbiology – Mycobacteria (3 updates)

  • 3 Mycobacteria

Update: August 20, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 18 to August 20, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (5 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (382 updates)

  • 67 Diseases
  • 315 Country notes
  • Map

Pythiosis in Humans

The following background data are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com Primary references are available on request.

Human pythiosis was first described in Thailand, in 1987; and thirty-two cases had been published worldwide as of 2002.  Most cases are reported from tropical and subtropical regions; however, human infection has also been encountered in United States, Israel and Australia.  The principal pathogen is identified as Pythium insidiosum, and at least one case of Pythium aphanidermatum infection has been reported.

Most case reports of pythiosis are published from Thailand, which accounted for 78% of published reports to 2002 – over 90% of these in farmers. Pythium insidiosum is identified in irrigation water in endemic agricultural areas; and 64% of soil samples in endemic areas contain the organism. 102 cases of human infection were identified in Thailand through active case finding during 1985 to 2003 – 59% vascular, 33% ocular, 5% cutaneous / subcutaneous and 3% disseminated.

Natural infection of dogs, cats, cattle, horses, and other mammals is described in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela), Central America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Panama, and Nicaragua), North America (the United States, notably in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas), Australia and Asia (India, Indonesia, Japan, New Guinea, New Zealand, North Korea, and Thailand).  A single case (dog in Mali) had been reported in Africa as of 2005.

Infection is acquired through direct contact or trauma, and presents as granulomatous cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. Patients often have underlying thalassemia. Vascular pythiosis is characterized by ascending purulent infection and thrombosis of major arteries, usually of the lower extremities. If a major vessel is involved, the patient usually dies within weeks. Symptoms include intermittent claudication, resting calf pain and other signs of arterial insufficiency. Fever and weight loss are not described.

Ocular disease is characterizewd by ulcerative keratitis which may progress to endophthalmitis and require enucleation. Eleven cases of Pythium endophthalmitis were reported from a single Thai hospital in 2004.  Legenidium, a related genus of oomycetes, has been associated with infections of the skin and eyes in Thailand.

Pythium insidiosum is not susceptible to antifungal agents, and excision is the only proven form of therapy. Saturated solutions of potassium iodide have been recommended for localized skin infections. Immune therapy consisting of injection of Pythium antigen into infected patients has been successful in animal models, and has been used for human disease in Thailand.

A single outbreak (4 cases of keratitis) of pythiosis has been reported, in Thailand in 2009; and at least three instances of cross-border pythiosis have been published:

2005 (publication year) – Pythiosis was documented in a German Shepherd dog exported from Mali to France.
2011 (publication year) – An American soldier acquired traumatic wound infection by Pythium aphanidermatum in Afghanistan.
2015 (publication year) – A French traveler acquired Pythium insidiosum keratitis in Thailand.

Update: August 18, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 16 to August 18, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (6 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (177 updates)

  • 60 Clinical notes
  • 32 Diseases
  • 85 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (2 updates)

  • 2 Susceptibility database – Update

Update: August 16, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 14 to August 16, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (4 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (237 updates)

  • 52 Clinical notes
  • 71 Diseases
  • 110 Country notes
  • 4 New Agents Added
  • Map

Update: August 14, 2015

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 12 to August 14, 2015

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (6 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (132 updates)

  • 1 Clinical note
  • 51 Diseases
  • 79 Country notes
  • 1 New Agents Added
  • Map

GIDEON Sign In