Filariasis in the Philippines

645,232 cases of filariasis (both forms) were estimated for the Philippines during 1963 to 1996

Wuchereria bancrofti:

Time and Place:
- Bancroftian filariasis is endemic to southern Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, Samar, Leyte, Sorsogon and Bohol.
- 43 of 63 provinces were endemic n 1960; 45 of 77 provinces as of 1996 4 ; 290 municipalities as of 2001; 351 of 1,566 municipalities as of 2003; 39 of 79 provinces as of 2004.
- Cases have recently been registered in Marinduque.
- Both forms of filariasis (W. bancrofti and B. malayi) coexist in only four provinces: Davao Oriental, Palawan, Eastern and Northern Samar 6 and Surigao del Sur.
- In 1984, 20 million persons were considered at risk for filariasis (both W. bancrofti and B. malayi) in the Philippines; 23.5 million in 2002; 15,034,765 in 2006; 21,882,581 in 2007.
- Only two provinces (Marinduque and Sulu) were considered ‘high prevalence’ areas (>10%) as of 1993.

Disease in the Philippines is nocturnally periodic.

Prevalence surveys:
37% of males and 17% of females in a village on Cataduanes (microfilaremia, 1978 publication)
13% in Bayanan and 3.4% in Manganan (Mindoro, microfilaremia, 2004 publication)

Vectors:
- The local vectors are Anopheles minimus flavirostris, Aedes poicilius , Culex quinquefasciatus and Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) niveus.

Brugia malayi

Time and Place:
- Brugia malayi infection is endemic to southwestern Palawan, Sulu, Agusan and Samar.
- Both forms of filariasis (W. bancrofti and B. malayi) coexist in only four provinces: Davao Oriental, Palawan, Eastern Samar and Surigao del Sur.
- Brugia malayi was first confirmed in the Philippines in 1964 – in Palawan (33.1% local prevalence at the time).
- 43 of 63 provinces were endemic for filariasis in 1960; 45 of 77 provinces as of 1996. 1
- In 1984, 20 million persons were considered at risk for filariasis (both W. bancrofti and B. malayi) in the Philippines.

Vectors:
- The local vectors are Mansonia uniformis, Mansonia bonnea and Mansonia dives.
- Mansonia dives is associated with both nocturnally periodic and subperiodic microfilaremia patterns on Palawan.

Mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole was administered to 1,945,121 persons during 2001.
- 9,881,124 persons received mass treatment in 2005 ; 10,174,936 in 2006; 13,627,661 in 2007

4 Responses to “Filariasis in the Philippines”

  1. Veronica L. Reoma Says:

    Is Southern Leyte Province not included in the endemic areas?

  2. Uri Blackman Says:

    Leyte is included in the endemic region as noted in GIDEON:

    Filariasis in the Philippines
    645,232 cases of filariasis (both forms) …

    Time and Place:
    - Bancroftian filariasis is endemic to southern Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, Samar, Leyte …”

  3. Steve Berger Says:

    This sort of problem cannot be handled through e-mail – suggest you consult with the Health Ministry in Manila.

  4. Veronica Lumbre-Reoma Says:

    To the authors:

    May I have the full blown paper of this filariasis study? I am a researcher of the Southern Leyte State University in Sogod, Southern Leyte, Philippines and is working with diseases related to abaca.

    Hoping for apositive response