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Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli in Scandinavia

Although rates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) infection have been increasing in Scandinavia since 2000, trends for E. coli O157 are less clear.  The following charts generated by Gideon ( display relevant data for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.



Tick-borne Encephalitis in Switzerland

Rates (per 100,000) of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland have increased somewhat since the year 2000, and are currently higher than those reported by surrounding countries.  The following image was created by a tool in Gideon ( that converts incidence data into population rates and combines user-selected graphs into a single chart.

Note featured in ProMED

Bacterial Diarrhea in Norway

As noted in a recent ProMED posting, salmonellosis is the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in Norway.  The following charts were generated by a multi-graph tool in Gideon  As in many countries, Campylobacter is the leading pathogen in this group.  Note that for the past two decades, rates of salmonellosis in Scandinavia have been somewhat higher than those in the United States.  Rates of shigellosis have been slightly higher in the United States than in Norway


Salmonellosis in Norway and the United States

A recent ProMED post suggested that outbreaks of salmonellosis in the Scandinavian countries are less common than in the USA.  Putting aside confounding factors related to differing surveillance systems, case definitions, etc the definition of “common” is problematic.  Thus the following chart generated by Gideon ( demonstrates that disease incidence is in fact much higher in the United States; but, when adjusted for population, Norway has experienced higher salmonellosis rates (per 100,000 population) through much of the past two decades.

Similarly, the highest number of food-related salmonellosis outbreaks reported in Norway in recent years was only eleven (in 2008), vs. 161 outbreaks in the United States (in 2013).  When adjusted for population size, these figures translate into 0.24 outbreaks per 100,000 population in Norway,  vs. only 0.051 per 100,000 in the United States.

Hepatitis A and Israel

The potential benefit for Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination in Jordan is illustrated by the following chart.  In 1999, Israel became the world’s first country to institute routine HepA immunization (blue arrow), and and has since largely eradicated the disease. [1]



  1. Chart generated by a Gideon multi-graph tool, see

Note featured on ProMED

Severe Fever and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

Incidence data for Severe Fever and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome are displayed in the following chart [1]  In contrast with Japan, The Republic of Korea has experienced a dramatic increase in rates since the disease was first reported.




Post featured on ProMED

Spotted Fever in Israel and the United States

Although Mediterranean spotted fever was commonly reported in Israel for several decades, rates have declined considerably in recent years.  In fact, the disease is currently less common than it’s American counterpart [1]   The following chart was generated using the Gideon multi-graph tool [1] :


Note appears on ProMED


Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia

Rates of Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFM) have been increasing in several Asian countries for the past decade [1] – see graph



  1. Berger S. Enterovirus Infections: Global Status, 2017.  139 pages, 67 graphs, 2,534 references. Gideon e-books

Enterovirus infections: Global Status

Note featured on ProMED

Tularemia Deaths in the United States

Rates of fatal tularemia in the United States have changed little since the 1960’s, and are similar to those reported for plague. [1]  See graph:


  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2017. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books

Infectious Diseases of the United States

Japanese Encephalitis in India

The idea that most cases of “acute encephalitis” in Uttar Pradesh are caused by diseases other than Japanese encephalitis is borne out by reporting statistics.  In the following chart, note the precipitous decline in “Japanese encephalitis” incidence which followed introduction of reporting for “Acute encephalitis” in 2008 (upper graph).  This phenomenon is even more striking for India as a whole (lower graph). [1,2]



  1. Berger S. Japanese Encephalitis: Global Status. 83 pages, 63 graphs, 1,034 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of India. 533 pages, 89 graphs, 5,763 references. Gideon e-books.

Note featured in ProMED