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Update: August 15, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 12 to August 15, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (14 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (413 updates)

  • 77 Clinical notes
  • 158 Diseases
  • 178 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (10 updates)

  • 3 Drugs
  • 7 New Drug Synonyms Added

Microbiology – Bacteria (3 updates)

  • 2 Bacteria
  • 1 New Bacteria Synonyms Added

Leptospirosis in Israel

The following background information on Leptospirosis in Israel is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] Primary references are available from the author.

Leptospirosis is most common in agricultural settlements of the Galilee, during the months of June to September.  Reported disease incidence reached a peak of 81 cases in 1962, but have since decreased considerably. 48 cases were reported during 2002 to 2008 – including 20 travel-related cases (15 of these acquired in southeast Asia).  Rates per 100,000 have been comparable to those reported in the United States for the past three decades (see graph) [3]

During 1970 to 1973, the main infecting serovars of Leptospira interrogans were grippotyphosa (41%) and hebdomadis (31%).  Serovars hardjohebdomadis and grippotyphosa accounted for 79% of cases during the 1970’s, and 32% during 1985 to 1999.  Serovar. icterohaemorrhagiae accounted for 2% during the 1970’s, and 29% during 1985 to 1999.

14 fatal cases of leptospirosis were reported during 1954 to 2017, the most recent in 1999.

The following chart summarizes five outbreaks of leptospirosis reported from Israel.

References:

  1. Berger S.  Leptospirosis: Global Status, 2018.  223 pages , 177 graphs , 1,840 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leptospirosis-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Israel, 2018. 481 pages , 238 graphs , 1,503 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-israel/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured in ProMED

 

Update: August 12, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 9 to August 12, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (13 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (123 updates)

  • 44 Diseases
  • 79 Country notes
  • Map

Microbiology – Yeasts (2 updates)

  • 1 New Yeasts Added
  • 1 New Yeast Synonyms Added

Update: August 9, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 6 to August 9, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (12 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (98 updates)

  • 41 Diseases
  • 57 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (24 updates)

  • 24 Drugs

Update: August 6, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 4 to August 6, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (12 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (146 updates)

  • 57 Diseases
  • 89 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (1 updates)

  • 1 Drug

Update: August 4, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 2 to August 4, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (12 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (103 updates)

  • 38 Diseases
  • 65 Country notes
  • Map

Update: August 2, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: August 1 to August 2, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (12 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (111 updates)

  • 50 Diseases
  • 61 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (7 updates)

  • 1 New Drugs Added
  • 1 New Drug Synonyms Added
  • 4 Drug interactions – New
  • 1 Susceptibility database – New

Microbiology – Bacteria (2 updates)

  • 1 New Bacteria Synonyms Added
  • 1 Microbes – Update

Microbiology – Yeasts (1 updates)

  • 1 Yeasts

Update: August 1, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: July 29 to August 1, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (16 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (143 updates)

  • 55 Diseases
  • 88 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Vaccines (1 updates)

  • 1 Vaccine

Update: July 29, 2018

GIDEON what’s new summary: July 27 to July 29, 2018

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (12 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (135 updates)

  • 50 Diseases
  • 85 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (3 updates)

  • 3 New Drug Synonyms Added

Legionellosis in Italy

The following background data are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]  (Primary references are available on request).

The first case of legionellosis in Italy was reported in 1981 (from Emilia Romagna), and passive surveillance was initiated in 1983.  Reported disease rates in Italy and surrounding countries have increased dramatically since 2000.  The rate of under-reporting for legionellosis in Italy is estimated at 21.4%

As seen in the following graph, parallel rate increases have been reported in the United States and Italy.  Disease rates in the latter are approximated five-fold those reported for the European Region as a whole, and 1.3-time higher than those reported in the United States.

Approximately 63% of cases are reported from Northern Italy (1983 to 1994); and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is responsible for 94% of cases.  The male/female ratio for reported cases is 3.45/1;  and 56.6% of the patients are above age 49.

819 presumptive cases and 490 confirmed cases were registered during 1983 to March 1994, including 67 fatal cases during 1983 to 1990.  9,803 cases (11.8% fatal) were reported during 2000 to 2011.

During 1973 to 1987, 117 cases (6 fatal) were reported among tourists to Italian summer resorts.  During 2002 to 2007, the annual incidence of legionellosis among European travelers to Italy ranged from 96 to 143 cases.  Seven cases were reported among tourists in Rome during 1998 to 1999, and 10 cases in 2000.  In 2003, 64 internal (Italian) tourists acquired legionellosis within Italy.

The following screen-shots from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com summarize published outbreaks and surveys for legionellosis in Italy.

Italy:  Legionellosis Outbreaks

 

Italy: Legionellosis Prevalence Surveys

References:

  1. Berger S. Legionellosis: Global Status, 2018. 134 pages , 111 graphs , 1,427 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/legionellosis-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2018. 500 pages , 116 graphs , 3,264 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured in ProMED

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