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Non-tuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Infection by non-tuberculous mycobacteria is commonly associated with cosmetic surgery, therapeutic injections and other invasive procedures. The following is a list of notable outbreaks:

Argentina:
2007 to 2007 – An outbreak (28 cases) of Mycobacterium immunogenum infection in Buenos Aires was associated with mesotherapy.

Brazil:
2002 to 2004 – An outbreak (14 cases) of mycobacterial wound infection associated with silicone breast implant surgery was reported in Campinas, Sao Paulo.
2003 – An outbreak (5 cases) in Sao Paulo of keratitis due to Mycobacterium immunogenum was associated with myopia surgery.
2004 to 2005 – An outbreak (311 cases) of Mycobacterium abscessus infections in Belem was associated with invasive procedures. Mycobacterium massiliense and M. bolletii were also identified in some cases.
2006 to 2007 – An outbreak (1,051 clinical cases) of Mycobacterium massiliense infections involving 63 hospitals in Rio de Janeiro state was related to contaminated instruments used in video-assisted surgery.
2008 – An outbreak (13 cases) of Mycobacterium fortuitum infections in Sao Paulo was associated with breast implant surgery.

Canada:
2002 – An outbreak (32 cases) of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in Toronto was reported from two acupuncture clinics.

Colombia
1996 (publication year) – An outbreak (232 cases) of Mycobacterium chelonae subsp. abscessus infection in Barranquilla was caused by contaminated lidocaine used in a single physician’s office.

Dominican Republic:
2003 – An outbreak (6 cases) of abdominal wall infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus occurred among patients who had undergone liposuction at a single clinic in Santo Domingo.
2004 – An outbreak (12 cases) of M. abscessus infection were diagnosed among Americans who had visited various clinics in Santo Domingo for cosmetic surgery.

France:
1989 to 1993 – An outbreak (58 cases) of discitis due to Mycobacterium xenopi was reported in a hospital.
2006 to 2007 – An outbreak (16 cases) of subcutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae infections was associated with mesotherapy injections.
2008 (publication year) – An outbreak (8 cases) of mycobacteriosis was associated with a tattoo parlor.

Hong Kong:
1993 (publication year) – An outbreak of sternotomy infections due to Mycobacterium fortuitum was reported in cardiothoracic hospital.

India:
1995 – An outbreak (45 cases) of post-operative wound infections due to Mycobacterium abscessus was ascribed to contaminated water.
2006 (publication year) – An outbreak (145 cases) of Mycobacterium cheloniae port site infections in Bangalore was associated with contaminated laparoscopic equipment.

Israel:
2003 – An outbreak (15 cases) of “Mycobacterium jacuzzii” infection was associated with breast implant surgery.
2008 (publication year) – An outbreak (5 cases) of Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteremia in a paediatric haematology-oncology ward was related to a contaminated faucet.

Mexico:
1991 (publication year) – An outbreak of post-rhinoplasty nasal cellulitis due to Mycobacterium chelonae was reported in Mexico City.

Peru
2004 to 2005 – An outbreak (35 cases) in Lima of persistent cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae was associated with mesotherapy sessions.

Republic of Korea:
2001 – An outbreak (40 cases) of Mycobacterium abscessus infection was associated with an acupuncture clinic.
2007 (publication year) – An outbreak (12 cases) of Mycobacterium massiliense infections was associated with intramuscular injection of an antimicrobial agent (ribostamycin).
2008 – An outbreak (109 cases) of Mycobacterium abscessus infection was ascribed to contaminated glutaraldehyde disinfectant used in acupuncture.

Spain:
2009 (publication year) – An outbreak (39 cases) of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in Rioja was associated with mesotherapy administered by a beauty salon.

United States:
1987 – An outbreak (17 cases) of Mycobacterium chelonae otitis media was caused by contaminated water used by an ENT practice in Louisiana.
1988 – An outbreak (8 cases) of foot infections due to Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies abscessus infections were associated with a jet injector used in a podiatric office.
1989 to 1990 – An outbreak (16 cases) of sputum colonization by Mycobacterium fortuitum was reported among patients on an alcoholism rehabilitation ward in Washington, D.C.
1991 (publication year) – An outbreak (6 cases) of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in Washington was associated with contaminated electromyography needles.
1995 to 1996 – An outbreak (87 cases) of postinjection abscesses due to Mycobacterium abscessus in several states was ascribed to an adrenal cortex extract. 1999 – An outbreak (10 cases) of intra- and periarticular Mycobacterium abscessus infection in Texas was caused by contaminated benzalkonium chloride used for injection.
2000 to 2001 – An outbreak (110 cases) of skin infections due to Mycobacterium fortuitum was caused by contaminated footbaths in California nail salons.
2002 – An outbreak (14 confirmed and 11 suspected cases) of soft tissue infections due to Mycobacterium abscessus followed injections of cosmetic substances administered by unlicensed practitioners in New York City.
2002 – An outbreak (115 cases or more) of cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium fortuitum was associated with a contaminated footbath in a nail salon in California.
2002 (publication year) – An outbreak (34 cases) of Mycobacterium chelonae soft tissue infection in California was associated with liposuction.
2002 to 2003 – An outbreak (4 cases) of Mycobacterium chelonae infection among patients undergoing rhytidectomies in New Jersey was caused by a contaminated methylene blue solution.
2003 – An outbreak (3 cases) of Mycobacterium goodii infection was associated with surgical implants in a Colorado hospital.
2004 – An outbreak (12 cases) among Americans of soft tissue infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus following cosmetic surgery performed at various clinics in the Dominican Republic.
2004 – An outbreak (143 cases) of mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infection (presumed M. fortuitum) was reported among persons attending nail salons in California.
2009 (publication year) – An outbreak (6 cases) of Mycobacterium chelonae infection was associated with a tattoo establishment.

Venezuela:
2005 – An outbreak (70 cases) of Mycobacterium cosmeticum infection was related to “mesotherapy” injections for fat removal.

Update: Appeared in ProMED

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