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Trichinosis in China

Time and Place:
Trichinosis was first documented in China in 1918.
– Disease prevalence in Beijing was estimated at 0.3% in 1918 and 0.16% in 1919.
– The principal foci of trichinosis are located in the southeast, center and northeast.
– As of 1999, 17 or the country’s provinces and autonomous regions report the disease.
– 4,033 cases (73 fatal) were reported during 1964 to 1979; 5,558 in 1983; 15,599 (141 fatal) during 1980 to 1989; 5,529 (26 fatal) during 1990 to 2002.
– 88.6% of clinical cases and 99.6% of fatal cases during 1964 to 2002 were reported from Yunnan, Guangxi and Tibet.

Prevalence surveys:
3.38%, nationwide (2001 to 2004)
5.5% of the population (survey of ten provinces during 1991 to 2000)
2.4% of humans in Henan Province
3.1% of pigs in Henan Province (1991)
12.16% of persons in Hubei Province (1982 to 1996)
7% of dogs in Henan; 9.82% in Jilin; 23.52% in Inner Mongolia; 35.6% in Liaoning; 39.5% in Heilongjiang
21.9% of adult dogs in Heilongjiang Province (Trichinella nativa, 1996 to 2004)
1.98% to 15.06% of rats (2001 publication) 7
0.09% to 29.63% of swine
6.76% of swine in Hubei (1997)

Seroprevalence surveys:
58.8% of persons in Eryuan County, rural Yunnan (2007 publication)

Vehicles:
94.3% of outbreaks among humans are caused by consumption of raw or undercooked pork.
– Pork is implicated in 95.8% of outbreaks (1964 to 1999).
– Mutton and game meat have increasingly implicated in recent years.
– Raw pork dishes (oru and shengpi) are commonly implicated in Yunnan – the seroprevalence in this Province was 13.5% during the 1990’s.
– Garbage is the principal source for infection of swine, and rats act as key reservoirs.
– In Henan Province during 1996 to 1998, 0.6% to 1.6% of market pork was found to be infested; 0.5% to 4.1% of rats (11.1% of rats in abattoirs); 2.2% of peasants; 7.8% of professional drivers.

Animal Reservoirs:
As of 2002, trichinosis had been documented in 14 animal species in China: pig, dog, cat, rat, cow, fox, bear, tiger, marten, raccoon, muntjac, yellow weasel, wolf and wild boar.
– Infestation of dogs is widespread, in at least some cases by Trichinella nativa.
– In 1997 A Japanese traveler acquired trichinosis from smoked bear meat while in China.
– The first outbreak ascribed to dog meat was reported in 1974.
– During 1974 to 1999, 81 cases of dog meat-associated trichinosis were reported in Jilin and Liaoning, 6 in Beijing and 2 in Henan.

Outbreaks:
The first outbreak of human disease in China was reported in 1964 (Tibet).
– 548 outbreaks, 23,004 cases and 236 deaths were recorded in 12 provinces and autonomous regions during 1964 to 1999. 2
– At least 8 outbreaks to 2001 were ascribed to consumption of dog meat, and 3 to consumption of wild boar.
– Seven outbreaks (250 cases) were reported in Zhengzhou (Henan) during 1992 to 1996. A total of 467 cases were reported for the province during this period.
– 17 outbreaks (828 cases, 11 fatal) were reported in 8 provinces during 2000 to 2003 – including 13 outbreaks related to pork.

Specific outbreaks:
1979 to 1980 – An outbreak in Harbin was ascribed to scalded mutton. One series described 4 outbreaks in the province, with 110 total patients.
1995 to 1996 – An outbreak (600 cases or more) in Zhengzhou was associated with dumplings served at a restaurant.
2008 (publication year) – An outbreak (9 cases, 2 fatal) in Tibet was associated with infested pork.

Updated: Appeared in ProMED

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