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Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Tularemia in Switzerland

The incidence of tularemia in Switzerland has increased dramatically during the past decade.  As depicted in the following chart, disease rates in this country (per 100,000 population) are currently ten-fold those reported by bordering countries.  [1-3]


  1. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Switzerland, 2018. 393 pages, 144 graphs, 996 references. Gideon e-books
  3. Berger S. Tularemia: Global Status, 2018. 70 pages, 44 graphs, 660 references. Gideon e-books,

Cited on ProMED

Cave Fever in the United States and Israel

In 2017, several cases of relapsing fever in Texas were reported among cave workers.  The Israeli equivalent of the disease is in fact known as “cave fever” with most cases reported among tourists in caves. [1,2]  Notably, an American tourist acquired “cave fever” in Israel in 1988.  The regional pathogen, Borrelia persica is found in approximately ten percent of caves, and is transmitted by Ornithodorus tholozani, an argassid (“soft”) tick.  The annual incidence has remained fairly stable at 5 to 15 cases for the past five decades.


  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Israel, 2018. 470 pages, 236 graphs, 1,480 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger S. Relapsing Fever: Global Status, 2018. 85 pages, 71 graphs, 473 references. Gideon e-books,

Post cited on ProMED

Measles Rates vs. Vaccine Coverage

For many years, rates of measles (per 100,000 population) reported by the  WHO European and Americas Regions have been similar. During the same period, both regions have maintained high uptake of measles vaccine. [1,2] In the following graph, I’ve contrasted these figures with those of Africa, which continues to report both high measles rates and inadequate vaccine usage.


  1. Berger S. Measles: Global Status, 2018.  497 pages, 537 graphs, 5,151 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the World, 2018. 1,463 pages, 430 graphs, 39,718 references. Gideon e-books,
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,


Listeriosis in the European Union

A recent series of outbreaks in Europe reflects an increasing incidence of listeriosis in the region.  In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates per 100,000 in the European Union with those of the United States [1,2] :



  1. Berger S. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2018. 128 pages, 108 graphs, 1,203 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,

Note featured on ProMED

Varicella Vaccination in the United States

For over 50 years, deaths due to varicella in the United States have exceeded deaths from measles, mumps and rubella.  The introduction of varicella vaccine during 1995 to 1996 was followed by a marked decline in mortality rates. [1,2]  See graphs below [3]



  1. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2018. 157 pages, 133 graphs, 927 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books,
  3. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.

Note featured on ProMED



Scrub Typhus in Thailand

Rates of scrub typhus [ST] in Thailand have been increasing dramatically since the 1970’s.  In fact, the reported incidence of ST in this country is now higher than those of Hepatitis A, Leptospirosis, Melioidosis, Typhoid and even Shigellosis (chart A, below).  Among Asian countries, only south Korea reports higher rates of ST (chart B); and the disease is currently more common in Thailand than are comparable rickettsial diseases in the United States and in my own country (chart C).   In preparing these figures, I was also struck by the similarity in numbers of fatal ST cases reported in Thailand vs. fatal RMSF cases in the United States (chart D). [1-3]


  1. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.
  2. Berger SA. Australo-Asian Spotted Fevers: Global Status, 2017. 63 pages, 16 graphs, 722 references. Gideon e-books,
  3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2017. 461 pages, 169 graphs, 2,015 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononlin


Note featured in Promed

Cryptosporidiosis in Ireland

The reported incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland is higher than those of salmonellosis, shigellosis and giardiasis.  In fact, cryptosporidiosis is more common in this region than in the United States. [1,2]



  1. Berger SA. Cryptosporidiosis – Global Status, 2017. 120 pages, 50 graphs, 1,699 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,

Rickettsial Spotted Fever: United States vs. Brazil

A higher case / fatality ratio for reported spotted fever cases in Brazil vs. the United States suggests that the Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii is more virulent.  In the following charts I’ve compared data for disease incidence and deaths for each of the countries, and contrasted death rates per 100,000 population. [1,2]


  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Brazil, 571 pages, 120 graphs, 5,552 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,

Salmonellosis Rates in Western Europe

In 1993, reported rates of salmonellosis in France and bordering countries ranged from approximately 18-to-240 per 100,000.  By 2003, corresponding figures had narrowed to 15-to-120 per 100,000,  and as of 2016 were only 8-to-30 per 100,000.  (see graph) [1,2]


  1. Berger S. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 2017. 324 pages, 302 graphs, 3,559 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,

Diphtheria in Bangladesh and Myanmar

An outbreak of diphtheria has been reported in Bangladesh among Royingya refugees from Myanmar – two countries which have experienced similar histories of disease incidence and vaccination uptake for several decades (see graph). [1,2]


  1. Berger S. Diphtheria: Global Status, 2017. 347 pages, 447 graphs, 533 references. Gideon e-books,
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,

Note featured on ProMED