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Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Tick-borne Encephalitis in France

The first case of Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in France was reported in 1968. Approximately 30 cases  were reported during 1968 to 1997 (virtually all from Alsace); and 64 cases (0 fatal) were reported in  the Alsace region during 1968 to 2005.  54 cases were confirmed nationwide during 2013 to 2016 – 48 autochthonous (including 43 in the Alsace region and 5 in the Alpine region) and 6 imported.

Cases were reported from Faverges and Grenoble in 2002, the Bordeaux area in 2006, and Strasbourg in 2016 (publication year).

Although rates in France are relatively low in comparison to those of other Western European countries, the yearly incidence of TBE almost trippled between 2014 to 2016.


Seroprevalence surveys:

1996 / individuals in eastern France / 8%

1996 / individuals in Lorraine / 1.6%

2008 (publication year) / workers exposed to tick bites in Eastern France / 3.4%



  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of France, 2017. 671 pages, 356 graphs, 2,588 references Gideon e-books,
  2. Berger SA. Tick-borne Encephalitis: Global Status, 2017. 75 pages, 45 graphs, 674 references Gideon e-books,

Note featured in ProMED


Rabies and Leishmaniasis in Algeria

Although high rates of rabies and leishmaniasis in Boghni district, Algeria could reflect a common dog reservoir ( , reporting statistics on a national level do not suggest that the diseases are related.  See chart:

Note featured in ProMED


Enterohemorrhagic E. coli in Scandinavia

Although rates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) infection have been increasing in Scandinavia since 2000, trends for E. coli O157 are less clear.  The following charts generated by Gideon ( display relevant data for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.



Tick-borne Encephalitis in Switzerland

Rates (per 100,000) of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland have increased somewhat since the year 2000, and are currently higher than those reported by surrounding countries.  The following image was created by a tool in Gideon ( that converts incidence data into population rates and combines user-selected graphs into a single chart.

Note featured in ProMED

Bacterial Diarrhea in Norway

As noted in a recent ProMED posting, salmonellosis is the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in Norway.  The following charts were generated by a multi-graph tool in Gideon  As in many countries, Campylobacter is the leading pathogen in this group.  Note that for the past two decades, rates of salmonellosis in Scandinavia have been somewhat higher than those in the United States.  Rates of shigellosis have been slightly higher in the United States than in Norway


Salmonellosis in Norway and the United States

A recent ProMED post suggested that outbreaks of salmonellosis in the Scandinavian countries are less common than in the USA.  Putting aside confounding factors related to differing surveillance systems, case definitions, etc the definition of “common” is problematic.  Thus the following chart generated by Gideon ( demonstrates that disease incidence is in fact much higher in the United States; but, when adjusted for population, Norway has experienced higher salmonellosis rates (per 100,000 population) through much of the past two decades.

Similarly, the highest number of food-related salmonellosis outbreaks reported in Norway in recent years was only eleven (in 2008), vs. 161 outbreaks in the United States (in 2013).  When adjusted for population size, these figures translate into 0.24 outbreaks per 100,000 population in Norway,  vs. only 0.051 per 100,000 in the United States.

Hepatitis A and Israel

The potential benefit for Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination in Jordan is illustrated by the following chart.  In 1999, Israel became the world’s first country to institute routine HepA immunization (blue arrow), and and has since largely eradicated the disease. [1]



  1. Chart generated by a Gideon multi-graph tool, see

Note featured on ProMED

Severe Fever and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome

Incidence data for Severe Fever and Thrombocytopenia Syndrome are displayed in the following chart [1]  In contrast with Japan, The Republic of Korea has experienced a dramatic increase in rates since the disease was first reported.




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Spotted Fever in Israel and the United States

Although Mediterranean spotted fever was commonly reported in Israel for several decades, rates have declined considerably in recent years.  In fact, the disease is currently less common than it’s American counterpart [1]   The following chart was generated using the Gideon multi-graph tool [1] :


Note appears on ProMED


Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Asia

Rates of Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFM) have been increasing in several Asian countries for the past decade [1] – see graph



  1. Berger S. Enterovirus Infections: Global Status, 2017.  139 pages, 67 graphs, 2,534 references. Gideon e-books

Enterovirus infections: Global Status

Note featured on ProMED