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Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Japanese Encephalitis in Assam State

Since 2008, data regarding Japanese Encephalitis in India have distinguished between Japanese encephalitis [JE] and Acute encephalitis syndrome [AES].  Cases of the latter have been variously ascribed to Chandipura, enteroviral infection, scrub typhus and lychee fruit intoxication.  [1,2]    In 1963, 22% of individuals in Assam (Lakhimpur and Darrang districts) were seropositive toward JE virus.  Surveys conducted during 2006 to 2014 found that Japanese encephalitis was responsible for 30% to 78% of acute encephalitis cases in Assam.  A study published in 2007 found that 19.3% of patients with Japanese encephalitis in Assam State have concurrent neurocysticercosis.  In the following chart, I’ve compared reported incidence for these two conditions in India and in Assam State. [3]

References:

  1. Berger SA. Japanese Encephalitis: Global Status, 2018. 96 pages , 66 graphs , 1,120 references  Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/japanese-encephalitis-global-status/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of India, 2018. 585 pages , 96 graphs , 6,487 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-india/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Malaria Rates in Central America

Although CDC declared that there is no risk for malaria to American travelers in Costa Rica as of 2014, six of eleven cases reported by the latter in 2017 were classified as “autochthonous”. [1]  For much of the past fifty years, Costa Rica has reported the lowest rates of malaria in Central America; and rates for the entire region have decreased dramatically since 2000 [2,3]

References:

  1. https://www.ministeriodesalud.go.cr/index.php/vigilancia-de-la-salud/boletines/enfermedades-de-transmision-vectorial-2017/3443-boletin-epidemiologico-no-31-2017-zika-chikungunya-y-dengue/file
  2. Berger SA. Malaria: Global Status, 2018. 497 pages, 557 graphs, 4,802 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/malaria-global-status/
  3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Costa Rica, 2018. 328 pages, 120 graphs, 371 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-costa-rica/

Note featured on ProMED

Tick- and Mosquito-borne Diseases: Trends in the United States

The following data are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1]  Charts were created using an interactive tool driven by over 30,000 base graphs in the program. [2]

Chart 1 contrasts trends for reported incidence of Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF).  Note that while rates of Lyme disease in 2016 are 15-fold those reported in 1987, those of RMSF increased by a factor of seven.  The number of fatal cases for both diseases have remained similar in recent years (i.e., the relative case-fatality rate of Lyme disease has decreased)

Chart 2 summarizes incidence data for a variety of tick-borne and mosquito-borne infections.  Note that rates of Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Jamestown Canyon virus infection and Powassan encephalitis have increased since the year 2000.  The incidence of LaCrosse encephalitis has decreased, while that of California encephalitis is largely unchanged.

Charts 3 and 4 demonstrate that incidence and reported deaths for Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile fever have changed little in recent years.

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 1,254 pages, 510 graphs, 16,672 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Malaria in Trinidad and Tobago

The following background data on malaria in Trinidad and Tobago are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1.2]

Trinidad and Tobago was certified “malaria-free” by WHO in December 1965.

84 cases of malaria were reported during 1968 to 1986 (29.8%  due to Plasmodium falciparum)

213 cases were reported during 1968 to 1997 (40% P. falciparum)  These figures included 164 cases imported during 1968 to 1977 – 48.8% from Africa.

118 cases were reported during 1989 to 1998 (33.8% P. falciparum)

Incidence data for malaria are depicted in the following graph.  Peaks reported during 1966 and 1994 to 1995 reflected local outbreaks (see below).

 

The local potential vectors are Anopheles aquasalis (coastal swamps), An. bellator (bromeliad malaria),  An. homunculus,  An. albitarsis (rice fields) and An. oswaldoe (small running streams).

Outbreaks of autochthonous malaria:;

1966 – An outbreak (38 cases) of Plasmodium malariae infection was reported on Tobago

1990 to 1991 – An outbreak (10 cases) of Plasmodium vivax infection (vector Anopheles aquisalis) was reported in Icacos village on the southwestern peninsula.  The index patient had arrived from Venezuela

1994 to 1995 – An outbreak (42 cases) of Plasmodium malariae infection (vectors Anopheles bellator and An. homunculus) was reported in a forested area of Navet-Biche, on the northeast coast.  13% of patient contacts were found to be seropositive for malaria.

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Trinidad and Tobago, 2018. 283 pages, 60 graphs, 266 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-trinidad-and-tobago/
  2. Berger S. Malaria: Global Status, 2018. 497 pages, 557 graphs, 4,802 references. Gideon ebooks,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/malaria-global-status/

 

Tularemia in Switzerland

The incidence of tularemia in Switzerland has increased dramatically during the past decade.  As depicted in the following chart, disease rates in this country (per 100,000 population) are currently ten-fold those reported by bordering countries.  [1-3]

References:

  1. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Switzerland, 2018. 393 pages, 144 graphs, 996 references. Gideon e-books  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-switzerland/
  3. Berger S. Tularemia: Global Status, 2018. 70 pages, 44 graphs, 660 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/tularemia-global-status/

Cited on ProMED

Cave Fever in the United States and Israel

In 2017, several cases of relapsing fever in Texas were reported among cave workers.  The Israeli equivalent of the disease is in fact known as “cave fever” with most cases reported among tourists in caves. [1,2]  Notably, an American tourist acquired “cave fever” in Israel in 1988.  The regional pathogen, Borrelia persica is found in approximately ten percent of caves, and is transmitted by Ornithodorus tholozani, an argassid (“soft”) tick.  The annual incidence has remained fairly stable at 5 to 15 cases for the past five decades.

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Israel, 2018. 470 pages, 236 graphs, 1,480 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-israel/
  2. Berger S. Relapsing Fever: Global Status, 2018. 85 pages, 71 graphs, 473 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/relapsing-fever-global-status/

Post cited on ProMED

Measles Rates vs. Vaccine Coverage

For many years, rates of measles (per 100,000 population) reported by the  WHO European and Americas Regions have been similar. During the same period, both regions have maintained high uptake of measles vaccine. [1,2] In the following graph, I’ve contrasted these figures with those of Africa, which continues to report both high measles rates and inadequate vaccine usage.

References:

  1. Berger S. Measles: Global Status, 2018.  497 pages, 537 graphs, 5,151 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/measles-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of the World, 2018. 1,463 pages, 430 graphs, 39,718 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-world/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

 

Listeriosis in the European Union

A recent series of outbreaks in Europe reflects an increasing incidence of listeriosis in the region.  In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates per 100,000 in the European Union with those of the United States [1,2] :

 

References:

  1. Berger S. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2018. 128 pages, 108 graphs, 1,203 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Varicella Vaccination in the United States

For over 50 years, deaths due to varicella in the United States have exceeded deaths from measles, mumps and rubella.  The introduction of varicella vaccine during 1995 to 1996 was followed by a marked decline in mortality rates. [1,2]  See graphs below [3]

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2018. 157 pages, 133 graphs, 927 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2018. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  3. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

 

 

Scrub Typhus in Thailand

Rates of scrub typhus [ST] in Thailand have been increasing dramatically since the 1970’s.  In fact, the reported incidence of ST in this country is now higher than those of Hepatitis A, Leptospirosis, Melioidosis, Typhoid and even Shigellosis (chart A, below).  Among Asian countries, only south Korea reports higher rates of ST (chart B); and the disease is currently more common in Thailand than are comparable rickettsial diseases in the United States and in my own country (chart C).   In preparing these figures, I was also struck by the similarity in numbers of fatal ST cases reported in Thailand vs. fatal RMSF cases in the United States (chart D). [1-3]

References:

  1. Charts generated using a multi-graph tool in Gideon.  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/
  2. Berger SA. Australo-Asian Spotted Fevers: Global Status, 2017. 63 pages, 16 graphs, 722 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-asian-spotted-fevers-global-status/
  3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2017. 461 pages, 169 graphs, 2,015 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononlin he.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/

 

Note featured in Promed

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