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Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Diphtheria in Thailand

Although two fatal cases of diphtheria were recently reported in Thailand [1], rates of this disease have declined dramatically since the 1970’s.  In fact, Thailand can serve as an icon for the effectiveness of vaccination.  In the following graph, I’ve contrasted rates of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus with WHO estimates of DPT vaccine uptake.  The second graph depicts the effect of DPT vaccination on diphtheria mortality in this country. [2,3]

References:

  1. http://www.promedmail.org/post/6453182
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2019. 506 pages , 169 graphs , 2,339 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Measles: Correlation of Vaccine Uptake with Disease Rates

The following is a country-by-country analysis of measles reporting trends vs. vaccine uptake.  For purposes of consistency, incidence data and population statistics used to calculate rates per 100,000 will be limited to those published by the World Health Organization (WHO).  Resultant graphs were generated by Gideon and abstracted from the Gideon e-book series [1,2]  True estimates of vaccination update statistics are those published by WHO, in most cases available only since 1980.  Data published by the countries themselves were not used, to avoid possible bias or inconsistency when comparing data among countries. Historical disease data which precede 1980 have also been appended to graphs to further appreciate the impact of vaccination.

The reader will note that in virtually all cases, the presumed impact of vaccine uptake on disease incidence occurs when vaccine uptake exceeds 80%, and again when rates increase beyond 90%.   As such, the few countries which have not achieved 80% uptake, or have consistently reported >90% uptake since 1980 are excluded.  Graphs are not included for countries for which data are not reported, or reported only sporadically.

Individual graphs for 135 countries are presented below in alphabetical order.  In 127 (94%) of these, a clear relationship seems to exist between increasing vaccine uptake and decreasing rates of measles.  In eight cases, temporary “spikes” in disease incidence were reported during years of high vaccine uptake: Japan, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Syria.

I have not attempted to perform a statistical analysis of this phenomenon, and cannot say with certainty that a confounding (third) factor does not exist.  Nevertheless, these graphs appear to indicate a favorable effect of vaccination on measles incidence.

Measles Vaccine Uptake vs. Disease rates (per 100,000)

References:

  1. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/
  2. Berger S. Measles: Global Status, 2019. 548 pages , 538 graphs , 5,779 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/measles-global-status/

Streptococcus suis Infection in Thailand

Currently, Streptococcus suis infection is more commonly reported in Thailand than a number of more familiar zoonoses acquired from pigs – Trichinosis, Hepatitis E, Brucellosis and Japanese encephalitis. [1,2]   See graph below

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2019. 506 pages , 169 graphs , 2,339 references.  Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
  2. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Tick-Borne Diseases of Norway

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of eight zoonoses carried by ticks in Norway (the others are Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Louping ill, Lyme borreliosis, Relapsing fever, Rickettsial spotted fever and Tularemia).  As displayed in the following graphs, rates of human TBE are considerably lower than those of other tick-borne diseases in Norway, and below TBE rates reported by neighboring countries. [1-3]

 

 

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Norway, 2019. 387 pages , 138 graphs , 858 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-norway/
  2. Berger S. Tick-borne Encephalitis: Global Status, 2019. 89 pages , 49 graphs , 787 references  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/tick-borne-encephalitis-global-status/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

 

Venereal Diseases in Australia, the U.K. and the U.S.

As noted in a recent ProMED post, the incidence of gonorrhea, syphilis and genital chlamydial infection are increasing in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia.  http://www.promedmail.org/post/6192757   I’ve compared recent trends for these diseases in the following graphs, based on data from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com [1]  Note that highest rates for all three conditions are consistently reported by the United States.

 

Reference:

  1. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note features on ProMED

Tularemia in Liechtenstein

A recent post in ProMED reported that a hare infected with tularemia had been identified in Liechtenstein.  http://www.promedmail.org/post/6143364  Although Liechtenstein  reported no cases of human tularemia during January 1, 2003 to November 6, 2018, the neighboring territory of Switzerland has experienced a remarkable increase in disease incidence.  In fact, current rates of human infection in Switzerland are reminiscent of those reported in the United States during the 1930’s. [1-3]

References:

  1. Berger S. Tularemia: Global Status, 2018. 74 pages , 45 graphs , 688 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/tularemia-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Liechtenstein. 236 pages , 24 graphs , 10 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-liechtenstein/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

 

Rabies in Costa Rica

Recently, a biologist in Costa Rica acquired rabies while working in a cave.  For over five decades, Costa Rica has reported the lowest rates of rabies in Central America (El Salvador reports the highest rates), both in terms of cases and cases per 100,000 population. [1,2]   Costa Rica also reports the lowest incidence of animal rabies for the region.

In the above graph, data for Costa Rica appear as a row of red dots at the lower margin (arrow).

References:

  1. Berger S. Rabies: Global Status, 2018. 475 pages , 557 graphs , 2,570 references  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/rabies-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Costa Rica, 2018. 334 pages , 120 graphs , 373 references https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-costa-rica/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

 

Legionellosis in New Zealand

Rates of Legionellosis have increased sharply since 2005 and are currently more than twice those reported in Australia and the United States. [1-2]  See graph below [3]

References:

  1. Berger S. Legionellosis: Global Status, 2018.  134 pages , 111 graphs , 1,427 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/legionellosis-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of New Zealand, 2018.  496 pages , 240 graphs , 839 references. Gideon e-books.  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-new-zealand/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Leptospirosis in Israel

The following background information on Leptospirosis in Israel is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] Primary references are available from the author.

Leptospirosis is most common in agricultural settlements of the Galilee, during the months of June to September.  Reported disease incidence reached a peak of 81 cases in 1962, but have since decreased considerably. 48 cases were reported during 2002 to 2008 – including 20 travel-related cases (15 of these acquired in southeast Asia).  Rates per 100,000 have been comparable to those reported in the United States for the past three decades (see graph) [3]

During 1970 to 1973, the main infecting serovars of Leptospira interrogans were grippotyphosa (41%) and hebdomadis (31%).  Serovars hardjohebdomadis and grippotyphosa accounted for 79% of cases during the 1970’s, and 32% during 1985 to 1999.  Serovar. icterohaemorrhagiae accounted for 2% during the 1970’s, and 29% during 1985 to 1999.

14 fatal cases of leptospirosis were reported during 1954 to 2017, the most recent in 1999.

The following chart summarizes five outbreaks of leptospirosis reported from Israel.

References:

  1. Berger S.  Leptospirosis: Global Status, 2018.  223 pages , 177 graphs , 1,840 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leptospirosis-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Israel, 2018. 481 pages , 238 graphs , 1,503 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-israel/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured in ProMED

 

Legionellosis in Italy

The following background data are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]  (Primary references are available on request).

The first case of legionellosis in Italy was reported in 1981 (from Emilia Romagna), and passive surveillance was initiated in 1983.  Reported disease rates in Italy and surrounding countries have increased dramatically since 2000.  The rate of under-reporting for legionellosis in Italy is estimated at 21.4%

As seen in the following graph, parallel rate increases have been reported in the United States and Italy.  Disease rates in the latter are approximated five-fold those reported for the European Region as a whole, and 1.3-time higher than those reported in the United States.

Approximately 63% of cases are reported from Northern Italy (1983 to 1994); and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is responsible for 94% of cases.  The male/female ratio for reported cases is 3.45/1;  and 56.6% of the patients are above age 49.

819 presumptive cases and 490 confirmed cases were registered during 1983 to March 1994, including 67 fatal cases during 1983 to 1990.  9,803 cases (11.8% fatal) were reported during 2000 to 2011.

During 1973 to 1987, 117 cases (6 fatal) were reported among tourists to Italian summer resorts.  During 2002 to 2007, the annual incidence of legionellosis among European travelers to Italy ranged from 96 to 143 cases.  Seven cases were reported among tourists in Rome during 1998 to 1999, and 10 cases in 2000.  In 2003, 64 internal (Italian) tourists acquired legionellosis within Italy.

The following screen-shots from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com summarize published outbreaks and surveys for legionellosis in Italy.

Italy:  Legionellosis Outbreaks

 

Italy: Legionellosis Prevalence Surveys

References:

  1. Berger S. Legionellosis: Global Status, 2018. 134 pages , 111 graphs , 1,427 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/legionellosis-global-status/
  2. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2018. 500 pages , 116 graphs , 3,264 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured in ProMED

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