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Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Ross River Disease in Australia

In recent years, the incidence of Ross River disease in Australia has increased somewhat, with most cases reported from Queensland.  Rates in Western Australia and Northern Territory have not changed substantially. [1,2]  See graph:

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references, Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
  2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2017. 36 pages, 20 graphs, 401 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-pacific-arboviruses-global-status/

 

Venereal Diseases: Reporting Trends in Australia

Rates of gonorrhea and genital chlamydia infection in Australia have been increasing for several years  [1,2]  The following charts were generated by a tool in GIDEON which converts yearly incidence data into rates per 100,000, and combines graphs selected by the user. [3]   Note that trends in the United States parallel those of Australia, with lower rates for individual diseases reported in the latter. Rates (per 100,000)  of Granuloma Inguinale in Australia bear a striking resemblance to those reported in the U.S. a half-century earlier.

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2017. 491 pages, 165 graphs, 2,982 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2017. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  3. Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured in ProMED

 

Venereal Diseases in Canada

For several decades, rates of gonorrhea, syphilis and genital chlamydia infection in Canada and the United States have followed similar trends. [1,2]  As with many other countries, the incidence of gonorrhea in the region fell precipitously following the appearance of AIDS during the 1980’s, but have been rebounding since 2000.  The following chart was generated by a tool in GIDEON which converts yearly incidence data into rates per 100,000, and combines graphs selected by the user. [3]

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Canada, 2017.  452 pages, 114 graphs, 3,091 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-canada/
  2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2017. 1,220 pages, 496 graphs, 14,855 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
  3. Gideon multi-graph tool,  https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

Tick-borne Encephalitis in France

The first case of Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in France was reported in 1968. Approximately 30 cases  were reported during 1968 to 1997 (virtually all from Alsace); and 64 cases (0 fatal) were reported in  the Alsace region during 1968 to 2005.  54 cases were confirmed nationwide during 2013 to 2016 – 48 autochthonous (including 43 in the Alsace region and 5 in the Alpine region) and 6 imported.

Cases were reported from Faverges and Grenoble in 2002, the Bordeaux area in 2006, and Strasbourg in 2016 (publication year).

Although rates in France are relatively low in comparison to those of other Western European countries, the yearly incidence of TBE almost trippled between 2014 to 2016.

 

Seroprevalence surveys:

1996 / individuals in eastern France / 8%

1996 / individuals in Lorraine / 1.6%

2008 (publication year) / workers exposed to tick bites in Eastern France / 3.4%

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of France, 2017. 671 pages, 356 graphs, 2,588 references Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-france/
  2. Berger SA. Tick-borne Encephalitis: Global Status, 2017. 75 pages, 45 graphs, 674 references Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/tick-borne-encephalitis-global-status/

Note featured in ProMED

 

Rabies and Leishmaniasis in Algeria

Although high rates of rabies and leishmaniasis in Boghni district, Algeria could reflect a common dog reservoir (http://www.promedmail.org/post/5379441) , reporting statistics on a national level do not suggest that the diseases are related.  See chart:

Note featured in ProMED

 

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli in Scandinavia

Although rates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) infection have been increasing in Scandinavia since 2000, trends for E. coli O157 are less clear.  The following charts generated by Gideon (www.GideonOnline.com) display relevant data for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

 

 

Tick-borne Encephalitis in Switzerland

Rates (per 100,000) of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland have increased somewhat since the year 2000, and are currently higher than those reported by surrounding countries.  The following image was created by a tool in Gideon (GideonOnline.com) that converts incidence data into population rates and combines user-selected graphs into a single chart.

Note featured in ProMED

Bacterial Diarrhea in Norway

As noted in a recent ProMED posting, salmonellosis is the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in Norway.  The following charts were generated by a multi-graph tool in Gideon www.GideonOnline.com  As in many countries, Campylobacter is the leading pathogen in this group.  Note that for the past two decades, rates of salmonellosis in Scandinavia have been somewhat higher than those in the United States.  Rates of shigellosis have been slightly higher in the United States than in Norway

 

Salmonellosis in Norway and the United States

A recent ProMED post suggested that outbreaks of salmonellosis in the Scandinavian countries are less common than in the USA.  Putting aside confounding factors related to differing surveillance systems, case definitions, etc the definition of “common” is problematic.  Thus the following chart generated by Gideon (www.GideonOnline.com) demonstrates that disease incidence is in fact much higher in the United States; but, when adjusted for population, Norway has experienced higher salmonellosis rates (per 100,000 population) through much of the past two decades.

Similarly, the highest number of food-related salmonellosis outbreaks reported in Norway in recent years was only eleven (in 2008), vs. 161 outbreaks in the United States (in 2013).  When adjusted for population size, these figures translate into 0.24 outbreaks per 100,000 population in Norway,  vs. only 0.051 per 100,000 in the United States.

Hepatitis A and Israel

The potential benefit for Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination in Jordan is illustrated by the following chart.  In 1999, Israel became the world’s first country to institute routine HepA immunization (blue arrow), and and has since largely eradicated the disease. [1]

 

Reference

  1. Chart generated by a Gideon multi-graph tool, see

Note featured on ProMED

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