The following background data on malaria in Trinidad and Tobago are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1.2]
Trinidad and Tobago was certified “malaria-free” by WHO in December 1965.
84 cases of malaria were reported during 1968 to 1986 (29.8% due to Plasmodium falciparum)
213 cases were reported during 1968 to 1997 (40% P. falciparum) These figures included 164 cases imported during 1968 to 1977 – 48.8% from Africa.
118 cases were reported during 1989 to 1998 (33.8% P. falciparum)
Incidence data for malaria are depicted in the following graph. Peaks reported during 1966 and 1994 to 1995 reflected local outbreaks (see below).
The local potential vectors are Anopheles aquasalis (coastal swamps), An. bellator (bromeliad malaria), An. homunculus, An. albitarsis (rice fields) and An. oswaldoe (small running streams).
Outbreaks of autochthonous malaria:;
1966 – An outbreak (38 cases) of Plasmodium malariae infection was reported on Tobago
1990 to 1991 – An outbreak (10 cases) of Plasmodium vivax infection (vector Anopheles aquisalis) was reported in Icacos village on the southwestern peninsula. The index patient had arrived from Venezuela
1994 to 1995 – An outbreak (42 cases) of Plasmodium malariae infection (vectors Anopheles bellator and An. homunculus) was reported in a forested area of Navet-Biche, on the northeast coast. 13% of patient contacts were found to be seropositive for malaria.
- Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Trinidad and Tobago, 2018. 283 pages, 60 graphs, 266 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-trinidad-and-tobago/
- Berger S. Malaria: Global Status, 2018. 497 pages, 557 graphs, 4,802 references. Gideon ebooks, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/malaria-global-status/