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Update: April 6, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: April 4 to April 6, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (8 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (80 updates)

  • 27 Diseases
  • 53 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (1 updates)

  • 1 Drug

Update: April 4, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: April 3 to April 4, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (9 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (71 updates)

  • 3 Clinical notes
  • 26 Diseases
  • 41 Country notes
  • 1 New Disease Synonym Added
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (2 updates)

  • 2 Drugs

Infectious Diseases – Vaccines (1 updates)

  • 1 Vaccine

Kunjin Virus Infection

The following background information on Kunjin virus infection is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series [1]   Primary references are available on request.

Kunjin virus (KUN), a subtype of West Nile virus, was first isolated in Australia in 1960, from mosquitoes (Culex annulirostris).  The virus is named for an Aboriginal clan living on the Mitchell River in Kowanyama, northern Queensland

Most cases of human infection are reported in Australia, with sporadic reports from Nepal. Serosurveys suggest the presence of human infection in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

In Australia, Kunjin virus infection is more widely distributed than another flavivirus disease, Murray Valley Encephalitis.  The yearly incidence varies from 0-to-9 cases per year (see Graph).  KUN is reported in most of tropical Australia, eastern Queensland, and occasionally southeastern Australia. The disease appears to have been responsible for some reports of “Murray Valley encephalitis” in 1974, and was implicated in an additional sporadic case in northern Victoria in 1984.  A presumptive case of KUN was reported in Pilbara, Western Australia in 1997.  In 2000, the disease reappeared in Central Australia, where it had last been documented in 1974.  Thirteen cases were reported in Northern Territory during 1992 to 2010, and an outbreak of Kunjin virus encephalitis was reported among horses in New South Wales in 2011.

In 2011, 3.1% of blood donors in Mildura, Victoria were found to be seropositive toward KUN.  The following year, seropositivity was documented in 0.6% to 0.7% of humans and 12.7% of animals in eastern New South Wales.

The principal mosquito vectors for Kunjin virus are Culex annulirostris, Cu. pseudovishnui and Cu. squamosis.  Aedes albopictus has been identified as a potential vector for Kunjin virus in Australia. The virus has also been identified in mosquitoes from Malaysia. Reservoirs include marine birds, pigs and horses.

Kunjin virus infection is often asymptomatic. Overt infection is clinically similar to Ross River disease – arthralgia, fever and rash.

Reference:

Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2019.  551 pages , 165 graphs , 3,407 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/

43 cases were reported during 2001 to 2018, New South Wales 3, Northern Territory 5, Queensland 21, Victoria 6 and Western Australia 8.

Individual years:

  1. 1996 – Two cases in Queensland.
  2. 1997 – Two cases in Western Australia and two in Northern Territory.
  3. 2000 – Three in Western Australia and one in Northern Territory).
  4. 2001 – New South Wales, Northern Territory [2 cases] and Western Australia.
  5. 2003 – All cases reported from Queensland
  6. 2004 – 5 in Queensland and 1 in Victoria.
  7. 2005 – 1 in Queensland
  8. 2006 – 2 in Western Australia and 1 in Queensland
  9. 2017 – 1 in Victoria and 5 in Western Australia

Update: April 3, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: April 1 to April 3, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (2 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (81 updates)

  • 2 Clinical notes
  • 38 Diseases
  • 41 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (1 updates)

  • 1 Drug

Infectious Diseases – Vaccines (1 updates)

  • 1 New Vaccine Synonyms Added

Tick-Borne Diseases of Norway

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of eight zoonoses carried by ticks in Norway (the others are Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Louping ill, Lyme borreliosis, Relapsing fever, Rickettsial spotted fever and Tularemia).  As displayed in the following graphs, rates of human TBE are considerably lower than those of other tick-borne diseases in Norway, and below TBE rates reported by neighboring countries. [1-3]

 

 

References:

  1. Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Norway, 2019. 387 pages , 138 graphs , 858 references. Gideon e-books,  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-norway/
  2. Berger S. Tick-borne Encephalitis: Global Status, 2019. 89 pages , 49 graphs , 787 references  https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/tick-borne-encephalitis-global-status/
  3. Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool,   https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/

Note featured on ProMED

 

Update: April 1, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: March 29 to April 1, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (8 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (90 updates)

  • 39 Diseases
  • 51 Country notes
  • Map

Microbiology – Bacteria (1 updates)

  • 1 Bacteria

Update: March 29, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: March 27 to March 29, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (3 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (60 updates)

  • 20 Diseases
  • 40 Country notes
  • Map

Update: March 27, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: March 24 to March 27, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (4 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (44 updates)

  • 21 Diseases
  • 23 Country notes
  • Map

Update: March 24, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: March 23 to March 24, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (4 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (164 updates)

  • 69 Diseases
  • 95 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (3 updates)

  • 1 Drug
  • 1 New Drug Synonyms Added
  • 1 Interacting drugs – New

Microbiology – Bacteria (1 updates)

  • 1 Bacteria

Update: March 23, 2019

GIDEON what’s new summary: March 20 to March 23, 2019

Infectious Diseases – Outbreaks (9 updates)

Infectious Diseases – Diseases (138 updates)

  • 55 Diseases
  • 83 Country notes
  • Map

Infectious Diseases – Drugs (2 updates)

  • 2 Drugs

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