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Viral Agents of Childhood Respiratory Tract Infection in the United States

As of October, 2019 Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series contain details of 69,204 epidemiological surveys – of which 1,107 (1.6%) are related to the prevalence of specific viral species in patients with respiratory tract infection.  [1-3]

The following chronology of published studies summarizes the relative proportion of viral agents associated with non-influenza childhood respiratory infection in the United States.  Additional details and primary references are available on request.

1976 – 2001 Tennessee
hMPV accounted for 20% of acute respiratory illness among children ages 0 to 5 years having no other identifiable etiology. 78% of infections in this group occurred during the months December to April.

1977 – 2001 Tennessee
Coronaviruses were found in 5.0% of nasal wash specimens from children below age 5 years with URI or LRI – 9% of these 229 E, 59% OC43 and 33% NL63

1982 – 2001 Tennessee – Nashville
hMPV accounted for 5% of upper respiratory tract infections among children, when other viruses are not identified

2000 – 2001 New York
hMPV was found in 3.9% of children ages 0 to 5 years, hospitalized for respiratory
illness

2001 – 2002 Ohio
HcoV-HKU1 was found in 1% of children below age 5 years with suspected viral infection in whom other viruses were not found

2001 – 2003 Multiple locations
Coronaviruses were found in 2.2% of children below age 2 years hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms or fever

2001 – 2003 Multiple locations
hMPV was found in 3.8% of children below age <5 years old hospitalized with acute respiratory infection (rate 120 per 100,000 per year)

2001 – 2002 Connecticut
hMPV accounted for 6.4% of lower respiratory tract infections in children below the age of 5 years

2003 – 2004 Multiple locations
Rhinoviruses were found in 8.1% of children below age 5 years hospitalized with acute respiratory infection vs. 2.2% of a control group

2003 – 2009 Multiple locations
hMPV accounted for 6% of acute respiratory illness or fever among inpatient and outpatient children less than 5 years of age in three counties

2003 Washington – Seattle
hMPV was found in 11% of children with bronchiolitis, Coronavirus 8%, RSV 77%, Adenovirus 15%, Parainfluenza virus 6%

2003 – 2004 Missouri – St. Louis
WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) was found in 2.7% of children with respiratory infection

2004 Connecticut
Rhinoviruses were found in 26.3% of children below age 2 years with wheezing and 3% of asymptomatic children

2004 Connecticut
HBoV was present in 5.2% of respiratory specimens submitted from children below age 2 years, and negative for other detectable viruses

2004 – 2005 Colorado
Coronaviruses were found in 5% samples from children with respiratory infections which were negative for common viral etiologies

2004 New York
HBoV was found in 5.5% of tonsil samples from children undergoing elective tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy

2005 – 2006 Multiple locations
hMPV was found in 9% of children below age 2 years with acute bronchiolitis, and Rhinoviruses in 16%

2005 – 2007 Alaska
Rhinoviruses were found in 44% of Alaskan children below age 3 years hospitalized with respiratory infection, Adenovirus 30%, RSV 23%, Parainfluenza virus 18%, hMPV 15% and Coronavirus 6%

2005* Connecticut – New Haven
New Haven Coronavirus infection was identified in 8.8% of children below age 5 with respiratory disease

2006* California
Human Bocavirus (HBoV) was present in 5.6% of children with lower respiratory tract infection

2007 – 2011 na
Non-influenza respiratory viruses accounted for 41% of unexplained respiratory disease outbreaks investigated by CDC

2007 – 2010 Multiple locations
RSV was found in 51% of hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis, and Rhinovirus in 21%

2007 – 2008 Washington
HBoV was found in 2% of children ages 2 to 11 years with respiratory illness, and 3% of asymptomatic controls

2008* na
WU polyomavirus was found in 7.1% of symptomatic children and 6.3% of asymptomatic children

2008* na
KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) in 2.2% of symptomatic children and 0% of asymptomatic children

2008* California – San Diego
HBoV was found in 5.6% and hMPV in 5.2% of children presenting to an Emergency Department

2009 Missouri
Human parechovirus (HPeV) was found in respiratory specimens from 3% of children

2009 – 2013 Colorado
Viruses were identified in the nasopharynx of 41.9% of children hospitalized for Kawasaki disease

2010* Washington
HBoV was found in 59% of children attending daycare

2010 – 2011 Tennessee – Memphis
Rhinoviruses were found in 62% to 65% of children with cancer and respiratory tract infection

2011* na
Rhinovirus was the most commonly-detected virus (23.1% of viruses) in children ages 6 to 18 with cystic fibrosis

2012* na
Viruses were identified during 52% of febrile episodes among neutropenic children without bacterial infection

2012* Multiple locations
RSV and / or Human Rhinovirus was found in 84.5% of children below age 2 years hospitalized with severe bronchiolitis

2012* Multiple locations
hMPV was found in 9.0% of high-risk children with severe lower respiratory tract infection, and RSV in 45%

2012 – 2013 Georgia
RSV infection was identified in 6.4% of children admitted to Intensive Care, and respiratory Picornaviruses in 22.6%

2013* Tennessee
Rhinovirus was identified in 62% of children with sickle cell disease and acute respiratory illness

2015* Washington, DC
hMPV was found in 11% of children ages <=5 years with viral respiratory infection

2015* Multiple locations
Viruses were identified in 66% of children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia

2017* na
Human bocavirus DNA was identified in 10.4% of children with community-acquired pneumonia

*     Year of publication

na   Location of study not available

 

References:

  1. Berger SA. Gideon Guide to Surveys. 2019. 4,441 pages, 10,603 tables, 59,327 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/surveys/
  2. Berger SA. Miscellaneous Respiratory Viruses: Global Status, 2019. 94 pages, 1,395 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/miscellaneous-respiratory-viruses-global-status/
  3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2019. 1,422 pages, 513 graphs, 18,048 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/

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