The following background information on Leptospirosis in Israel is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] Primary references are available from the author.
Leptospirosis is most common in agricultural settlements of the Galilee, during the months of June to September. Reported disease incidence reached a peak of 81 cases in 1962, but have since decreased considerably. 48 cases were reported during 2002 to 2008 – including 20 travel-related cases (15 of these acquired in southeast Asia). Rates per 100,000 have been comparable to those reported in the United States for the past three decades (see graph) 
During 1970 to 1973, the main infecting serovars of Leptospira interrogans were grippotyphosa (41%) and hebdomadis (31%). Serovars hardjo, hebdomadis and grippotyphosa accounted for 79% of cases during the 1970’s, and 32% during 1985 to 1999. Serovar. icterohaemorrhagiae accounted for 2% during the 1970’s, and 29% during 1985 to 1999.
14 fatal cases of leptospirosis were reported during 1954 to 2017, the most recent in 1999.
The following chart summarizes five outbreaks of leptospirosis reported from Israel.
- Berger S. Leptospirosis: Global Status, 2018. 223 pages , 177 graphs , 1,840 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leptospirosis-global-status/
- Berger S. Infectious Diseases of Israel, 2018. 481 pages , 238 graphs , 1,503 references. Gideon e-books, https://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-israel/
- Gideon e-Gideon multi-graph tool, https://www.gideononline.com/cases/multi-graphs/
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