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Travel-Related African Trypanosomiasis

During January 1970 to May 2017, 138 case reports of travel-related trypanosomiasis were published in the medical literature.  In 49 cases (36%) the patients were identified as Europeans, and in 49 (37%) the disease was acquired in Tanzania.  A chronology of these events follows below [1].

African Trypanosomiasis – A Chronology of Travel-Related Cases

Year               Patient From                              Infected In                         Cases (#)

1970  Switzerland multiple **  1
1970  United States multiple  2
1975  Sweden Gambia  1
1977  Switzerland multiple  1
1981  United States Tanzania  1
1986  United States Zambia  1
1990 *  Switzerland Rwanda   2
1991  United States multiple   1
1991  New Zealand multiple   1
1992  France Angola   1
1994*  France Rwanda   2
2004*  United Kingdom Ghana   1
1995*  Netherlands Zimbabwe   1
1995*  Netherlands Cameroon   1
1996  Mexico Kenya   1
1996  Italy D. R. Congo   1
1997  Brazil Angola   1
1997  France Rwanda   1
1998  Australia Tanzania   1
1999  United States Tanzania   3
1999  France Gabon   1
2000  South Africa Malawi   1
2000  United States Tanzania   1
2000  United Kingdom Tanzania   1
2000  United Kingdom Zambia   1
2000  France Guinea   2
2000  Germany N.A.   1
2000  Australia Tanzania   1
2001  Italy Tanzania   2
2001  Brazil  Angola   1
2001  Netherlands Tanzania   3
2001  United Kingdom Zambia   1
2001  United States Tanzania   4
2001  Norway Tanzania   1
2001  Germany Cameroon   1
2001  United Kingdom Tanzania   1
2001  United States Sudan   1
2001  United States Angola   1
2001  Belgium Tanzania   2
2001  Sweden Tanzania   1
2001  South Africa Tanzania   3
2002  United Kingdom Tanzania   1
2002  India Tanzania   1
2002  United States Tanzania   1
2002  Canada D. R. Congo   1
2002  France Gabon   1
2003  United Kingdom Tanzania   2
2004  South Africa Malawi   2
2004  United Kingdom Tanzania   2
2004  Netherlands Angola   1
2004  Italy Gabon   1
2004  Italy C.A.R.   1
2004  United States Tanzania   2
2005  United States Tanzania   1
2005  South Africa Malawi   2
2005  South Africa Zimbabwe   1
2005  Italy multiple   2
2006*  Netherlands Tanzania   1
2006  Italy D. R. Congo   1
2006  United States Tanzania   1
2006  South Africa Uganda   1
2007*  France multiple   2
2007  Canada Malawi   1
2007  South Africa Malawi   5
2007  United Kingdom Malawi   1
2007  Australia Malawi   2
2008  United Kingdom Tanzania   1
2008  United Kingdom Zambia   1
2008  Spain Eq. Guinea   1
2008  Netherlands Tanzania   1
2008  United States Tanzania   1
2008  South Africa Tanzania   1
2008  Canada  D. R. Congo   1
2008  South Africa Malawi   2
2008  Australia Uganda   1
2009*  France Gabon   1
2009*  Netherlands Angola   1
2009*  United Kingdom Tanzania   1
2009  Portugal Angola   1
2009  South Africa multiple   3
2009  United States Zimbabwe   1
2009  Israel Tanzania   1
2009  Germany Tanzania   1
2009  United States Tanzania   1
2009  Netherlands Tanzania   1
2009  Poland Uganda   1
2010  South Africa Zambia   1
2010  United States Cameroon   1
2010  United Kingdom Zimbabwe   1
2010  United Kingdom multiple   1
2010  Portugal Angola   1
2010  United States Zambia   1
2010  South Africa D. R. Congo   2
2010  South Africa Malawi   1
2012*  France Gabon   1
2012  Belgium Kenya   2
2012  Germany Kenya   1
2012  Sweden Tanzania   1
2012  United States Zimbabwe   1
2014*  Germany Cameroon   1
2015  Canada Zambia   1
2016*  Spain  Eq. Guinea   1
2016*  China Gabon   1
2016  United States multiple   1
2016  United States Uganda   1
2017  Netherlands Tanzania   1

 

*      year of publication

**     exposure in multiple / countries

 

Trypanosomiasis due to T. brucei gambiense entered Tanzania from Zaire in approximately 1902; T.b. rhodesiense from Mozambique in 1910.  As of 2004, transmission was reported in Kigoma (Kibondo and Kasulu districts), Tabora (Kigoma, Sikonge and Urambo districts), and Rukwa (Mpanda district).  Highest prevalence occurs in Arusha and Kigoma.   An estimated 1.5 million persons lived in endemic zones during the 1980’s.   For several decades, disease rates in Tanzania have paralleled those reported for Africa as a whole  (see graph) [2]

 

 

Prevalence surveys have demonstrated that 15.8% of cattle (Bos indicus) from traditional pastoral Maasai and managed Boran regions are infested; 0.7% in Monduli District, northern Tanzania.  The parasite has also been identified in 10.1% of domestic pigs in Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma; and in 0.010% of tsetse flies (Glossina swynnertoni and G. pallidipes) in Serengeti National Park.

References:

  1. Berger SA. Gideon Guide to Cross Border Infections, 2017. 217 pages, 128 tables, 3,936 references Gideon e-books
  2. GIDEON – www.GideonOnline.com (user generated graphs tool)

Note featured in ProMed

 

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