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Free-living Amoebae in Southeast Asia

To date, infection by free-living amoebae has not been described in Myanmar, Laos or Cambodia. Thailand reported its first case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in 1983, and by 1987 an additional five cases had been reported. 22 cases were reported to 2004: 10 due to Naegleria fowleri, 11 Acanthamoeba, and 1 Balamuthia mandrillaris. A study performed during 2001 to 2004 found that amoebae accounted for 2% of ulcerative keratitis cases in Bangkok; and as of 2005, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Hartmanella, Vahlkampfia and Vannella had been identified in soil and water samples from 14 provinces. [1,2]

1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2012. 496 pages, 164 graphs, 2316 references. Gideon e-books,
2. Berger SA. Free-living Amoeba: Global Status, 2012. 24 pages, 1 graph, 368 references. Gideon e-books,

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