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Filariasis in Indonesia

The following background data on Filariasis in Indonesia are abstracted from Gideon and the Gideon e-book series. [1-3] (Primary references are available on request).

Three nematode species are responsible for human filariasis in Indonesia: Wucherichia bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. A fourth zoonotic species, Brugia pahangi, is occasionally reported. Populations at risk have increased in recent years, in parallel with use of mass chemotherapy – see graph [4]:

Wucherichia bancrofti:
Time and Place:
– Bancroftian filariasis is found in the forests of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi
– Cases have also been reported in Jakarta and Semarang.
– Microfilaremia in Indonesia is nocturnally periodic.

Prevalence surveys:
0.3% in West Kalimantan (1976 publication)
4% in Irian Jaya (1972)

– The local vectors are Anopheles aconitus, An. balabacensis, An. subpictus, An. vagus, Culex annulirostris, Cu. bitaeniorhynchus and Mansonia uniformis.
– Cu. sitiens, Cu. annulirostris, Cu. bitaeniorhynchus and Mansonia uniformis are active in West Irian.

Brugia malayi:
Time and Place:
– Brugian filariasis is endemic to the Lesser Sunda islands – Ceram, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Timor and Sumatra.
– The disease pattern is nocturnally-periodic in Indonesia

Prevalence surveys:
3.6% of the population of West Kalimantan (1976 publication).
15% of the population of south Sulawesi (1978 publication).

– The local vectors are Anopheles barbirostris, Mansonia bonneae, Ma. annulata, Ma. annulifera and Ma. uniformis and Ma. dives.
– Ma. dives is associated with a nocturnally subperiodic pattern on Sumatra.

Brugia pahangi:
– Evidence for Brugia pahangi infection has been documented among humans, domestic cats (Felis domesticus), and silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus) from South Kalimantan (Borneo).
– Additional reservoirs include Macaca monkeys, wild cats (eg, civets) and pangolins (Manis sp.).

Brugia timori:
Time and Place:
– Brugia timori infection is limited to Timor and islands of the Lesser Sunda Archipelago: Flores, Alor, Sumba, Roti and Savu.
– The total number of persons infected is estimated at <800,000. - Clinical disease on Flores occurs in coastal (but not highland) areas, and is more common among males than females. - Disease rates on the island double between the first and second decades of life. Prevalence surveys: 25% of the highland population of Alor Island are microfilaremic and 13% have lymphedema (2001) Vectors: - The local vectors are Anopheles barbirostris and Aedes oceanicus. References: 1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Indonesia, 2012. 412 pp, 67 graphs, 1992 references. Gideon e-books,
2. Berger SA. Bancroftian Filariasis: Global Status, 2012. 102 pp, 111 graphs, 606 references. Gideon e-books,
3. Berger SA. Miscellaneous Filaria: Global Status, 2012. 47 pp, 18 graphs, 535 references. Gideon e-books,
4. Gideon graph tool at

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