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Hepatitis B and C in Pakistan

Recent reports of hepatitis B and C in Sindh underscore a general trend toward high hepatitis rates in Pakistan. The following serosurvey data regarding Hepatitis A-G are abstracted from GIDEON (primary references available on request).

Hepatitis A seroprevalence:
94% of children by age 5 (Karachi, 1994 publication)
100% of children ages 14 to 15 (Karachi, 2002 to 2004)
40.57% of persons with clinical suspicion of acute hepatitis (2003 to 2004)

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) surveys:
4% of the general population (2007 publication)
2.4% of children and 2.4% of adults (1994 to 2007)
4.92% of persons in Karachi and 2.19% in Sindh (1999 to 2006)
2.56% of healthy persons in Islamabad (1998 to 2004)
2.28% of blood donors (Karachi and Hyderabad)
5.5% of first time blood donors in Karachi (2000)
1.46 to 2.99% of blood donors, with a downward trend over time (Lahore, 1996 to 2005)
3.3% of healthy blood donors in northern Pakistan
6.2% of blood donors in interior Sindh (2004 to 2007)
2.0% of volunteer blood donors in Karachi (1998 to 2002)
2.1% of healthy blood donors (2003 to 2005)
3.6% of children below age 12 in Islamabad (1995 to 1996)
1.8% of children ages 1 to 15 years in Karachi (2006 publication)
1.9% of children ages 14 to 15 in Karachi (2002 to 2004)
55% of patients with chronic liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma
0.6% of gynecological patients in Quetta (2004)
8.3% of Afghani refugees living in Balochistan (2003)
7.5% of IDU in Karachi (2003)
6% of IDU in Quetta (2007 publication)
1.5% of patients with lichen planus and 3.5% of a control group (Lahore, 2003 to 2005)

Hepatitis C serosurveys:
2.1% of children and 3.0% of adults (1994 to 2007)
6.5% in Hafizabad, Punjab (1997)
5.31% of healthy persons in Islamabad (1998 to 2004)
16% of adults in Faisalabad (2004)
15.63% in the Punjab (1999 to 2001)
5.59% of persons in northern Pakistan following an earthquake (2006)
15.9% in Lahore
23.8% in Gujranwala (Punjab)
14% of surgical patients in Jacobabad Sindh (2007)
3.26 of blood donors in Sialkot (1998 to 2000)
4.0% of blood donors in northern Pakistan (1996 to 2000)
4.4% of first time blood donors in Karachi (2000)
4,1% of blood donors in Nortwest Frontier Province (2008 publication)
4.1% of blood donors (2002 to 2005)
7.5% of blood donors in interior Sindh (2004 to 2007)
3.01 to 4.99% of blood donors in Lahore (1996 to 2005)
0.44% of children by age 5 (Karachi, 1994 publication)
1.6% of children ages 1 to 15 years (Karachi, 2006 publication)
1.4% of children ages 14 to 15 (Karachi, 2002 to 2004)
68% of hemodialysis patients and 10% of controls in Lahore (1999)
23.7% of hemodialysis patients in Islamabad (2002 to 2003)
4.8% of pregnant women in Islamabad (2001 to 2002)
94.3% of injecting drug users in Karachi (2003)
36% of diabetics in Peshawar (2007 publication)
60% of IDU in Quetta (2007 publication)

Hepatitis D antigenemia:
36.8% of hepatitis B patients and 10% of healthy carriers of hepatitis B (Karachi, 1995)
16.6% of the general population (1994 to 2001)

Hepatitis E seroprevalence:
26% of children ages 14 to 15 (Karachi, 2002 to 2004)
62% of adults (1995)
62% of United Nations peacekeepers in Pakistan (1998 publication)

Hepatitis G antigenemia:
1.5% of professional blood donors/drug addicts (1996 to 1997)
12% of patients with liver disease (40% of these are coinfected with hepatitis C virus)
211% of transfusion-dependent children with thalassemia

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