United States: Recent Trends in Tick-borne Diseases

Saturday, August 11th, 2012

Since 1999, there has been a striking parallel among rates of reportable tick-borne diseases in the United States – see graph (Lyme disease expressed as cases per 100,000 for fit). [1,2]

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2012. 1089 pages, 467 graphs, 9760 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Pertussis in Australia and New Zealand

Tuesday, June 5th, 2012

Since the 1990’s, rates of pertussis in Australia and New Zealand have increased dramatically, and are currently at levels which have not been encountered in the United States for over sixty years. [1-4] See graph:

These trends do not reflect a lapse in vaccine uptake. See graph:

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2012. 519 pp, 161 graphs, 2950 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of New Zealand, 2012. 413 pp, 136 graphs, 1534 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-new-zealand/
3. Berger SA. Pertussis: Global Status, 2012. 340 pp, 506 graphs, 401 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/pertussis-global-status/
4. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Coccidioidomycosis in the United States

Sunday, May 27th, 2012

Most of the increasing incidence of coccidioidomycosis in the United States since 2000 has consisted of cases in Arizona – see graph 1. The number of fatal cases has also increased during this period – see graph 2.

Source: Gideon www.GideonOnline.com

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Lyme Disease – Incidence by States

Monday, April 23rd, 2012

Although most cases of Lyme disease in the United States were initially reported by New York, Pennsylvania and Connecticut, disease incidence in these states has not paralled a steady increase in national rates since the 1990’s (see graph). [1-3]

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2012. 1089 pp, 467 graphs, 9760 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Berger SA. Lyme Disease: Global Status, 2012. 73 pp, 65 graphs, 593 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/lyme-disease-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Tick-borne Diseases in the United States

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Nine tick-borne infections affect humans in the United States. Data on a national level are available for Lyme disease, Powassan encephalitis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Tularemia, Granulocytic ehrlichiosis (Anaplasmosis) and Human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Statistics for three diseases (Babesiosis, Relapsing fever and Colorado tick fever) are not published. The following graph compares reporting trends for tick-borne infections (Lyme disease displayed as cases/100,000 for fit). [1,2]

Note an apparent parallel increase for some diseases during 2000 to 2008, followed by a dip during 2009 to 2010. Assuming a statistical association between these data, explanations might include changes in tick populations as a whole, or trends in human-tick contact over time.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2012. 1089 pp, 467 graphs, 9760 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Lyme Disease in the United Kingdom

Saturday, January 28th, 2012

The incidence of Lyme disease has been increasing in the United Kingdom since reporting began, with highest rates in Scotland. In the following graph I’ve contrasted these rates with those of the Uhnited States. [1]

Reference:
1. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Brucellosis in Argentina

Thursday, December 29th, 2011

Rates of Brucellosis in Argentina have been decreasing for over two decades, but continue to parallel those reported in the United States during the 1950’s. [1,2] See graph [3]:

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Argentina, 2011. 417 pp, 96 graphs, 1516 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-argentina/
2. Berger SA. Brucellosis: Global Status, 2011. 125 pp, 135 graphs, 717 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/brucellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool tutorial at: http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Hepatitis A in North America

Sunday, December 18th, 2011

Notwithstanding a recent series of outbreaks, rates of Hepatitis A in Mexico have changed little since 1984, and remain similar to those reported in the United States during the 1960’s and 1970’s (see graph). [1-3]

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Mexico, 2011. 446 pp, 128 graphs, 1655 references. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-mexico/
2. Berger SA. Hepatitis A: Global Status, 2011. 163 pp, 180 graphs, 1073 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatitis-a-global-status/
3. http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
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Babesiosis in the United States

Sunday, December 18th, 2011

The following background data on babesiosis in the United States are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references are available on request)

Time and Place:
Babesiosis was first diagnosed in the United States in 1968.
– Of 214 cases of babesiosis reported worldwide during 1975 to 1986, 200 occurred in the United States.
– Most cases are reported from Rhode Island , Massachusetts, New, Minnesota, New Jersey and Connecticut.
– Occasional cases are reported from Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey and Georgia.
– Highest incidence is reported during the warmer months.

Infecting species:
– Babesia microti accounts for most cases, but B. equi may cause human disease in California, and B. divergens in Missouri (implicated in a single, fatal case).
– Infection due to Babesia duncani has been reported in Washington State (Babesia WA1) , California (Babesia CA1 and WA1) and Missouri (Babesia MO1)
– Most infections due to these new species have occurred among splenectomized individuals; whereas 95% of B. microti infections are reported in persons with intact spleens.
– Human infection by a Babesia divergens-like strain has also been reported in Washington State.
– There is evidence that Babesia WA1 infection is not limited to the west coast region.

Additional Geographic Notes:

New York:
Babesiosis was first documented in New York State in 1975.
– Six cases (0 fatal) were reported on Long Island during a two-month period (1982 publication)
– 139 patients were hospitalized for babesiosis in New York State during 1982 to 1993 – nine of these infections were fatal.
– 560 cases were reported in the state to 2001.
– 371 cases were reported in the Lower Hudson Valley during 2001 to 2008, including 119 in 2008.
– Infection has also been documented in humans and ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in upstate New York.
– Three cases were reported New York City in 2000 – possibly acquired in Westchester County (an area not previously known to be endemic).

Massachusetts:
160 cases were reported in Nantucket, Massachusetts during 1969 to 1998.
– 1.6% of residents of Nantucket Island, Martha’s Vineyard and Block Island are seropositive toward Babesia divergens, and 4.5% toward B. microti.

Rhode Island:
Babesiosis was first identified (2 cases) in Rhode Island in 1994.
– 189 cases were reported in Rhode Island during 1998 to 2004, including 48 in 2004.
– Rhode Island averaged ca. 2 cases per year during 1994 to 1999.
– 140 cases were reported from Block Island during 1991 to 2000. The rate of symptomatic infection on the island is estimated at 516 per 100,000 per year.

Other:
40 cases of babesiosis were reported in New Jersey during 1993 to 2001.
– 32 cases were reported in Wisconsin during 1996 to 2005.
– The first case of babesiosis in Tennessee was reported in 2010.

Transfusion-related babesiosis
159 cases of transfusion-associated infection were reported during 1979 to 2009, involving 19 states : 21 during 1980 to 1997; 18 (5 fatal) during 2005 to 2007; 122 during 2000 to 2009.
– 16 cases of transfusion-related babesiosis were reported in New York City in 2002, 25 in 2003; 16 in 2004; 18 in 2005; 38 in 2006; 25 in 2007; 39 in 2008.
– 21 cases of transfusion-related babesiosis were reported in Rhode Island during 1999 to 2007.
– No cases of fatal babesiosis acquired through transfusion were reported in 1997; 1 in 1998; 0 during 1999 to 2004; 2 in 2005; 3 in 2006; 3 in 2007.
– Seroprevalence in blood donors on Shelter Island (Suffolk County, eastern Long Island) was 4.3 percent in May 1998.
– A case of transfusion-associated babesiosis was reported in California in 2007.
– A case of transfusion-associated Babesia duncani infection was reported in California in 2008.
– A case of fatal transfusion-associated babesiosis was reported in Delaware in 2009.
– 1.4% of blood donors from endemic areas in Connecticut (0.3% from non-endemic areas) were seropositive in 1999; 1.0% in 2000; 1.4% in 2001.
– A rare case of congenital babesiosis has been reported in New Jersey (2009 publication)

Exported cases:
2003 (publication year) – A Czech national acquired babesiosis while traveling in the United States.
2003 (publication year) – A Swiss national acquired B. microti infection in the United States.
2005 – Hong Kong reported it’s first case of babesiosis – imported from the eastern United States.
2009 – A Dutch traveler acquired concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease following a trip to the United States.

Reservoirs and Vectors:
The vector in the northeast is Ixodes scapularis (I. dammini), and the usual reservoir is the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).
– Enzootic transmission of Babesia divergens has been demonstrated among cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.

Enzootic transmission of Babesia divergens among cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) by Ixodes dentatus has been documented on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.
– Enzootic infection has been identified among rodents in Maine.
– 75%, 37% and 25% of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) have antibodies to B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti respectively. 13% have antibodies to all 3 pathogens. (Connecticut, 2001 to 2003)

A genetically-distinct strain of B. microti is enzootic to Microtus oeconomus and Clethrionomys rutulis in coastal Alaska.
– The transmission cycle of B. microti in Colorado consists of Ixodes spinipalpis and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

Notable outbreaks:
1982 (publication year) – An outbreak (6 cases) of babesiosis was reported on Long Island.
1988 to 1989 – An outbreak (6 cases) of babesiosis was reported in Connecticut.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2011. 1030 pp, 464 graphs, 8237 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Berger SA. Babesiosis: Global Status, 2011. 18 pp, 218 references. Gideon e-books. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/babesiosis-global-status/

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Bacillus Cereus Food Poisoning in the United States

Saturday, December 10th, 2011

The following background information on Bacillus cereus food poisoning in the United States is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com the Gideon e-book series. [1] (primary references available on request)

Incidence and Prevalence:
– Bacillus cereus food poisoning accounts for approximately 2% of food-related disease outbreaks with confirmed etiology reported to CDC (United States Centers for Disease Control) .
– In one study, The estimated incidence was 27,360 cases per year (8 hospitalizations), accounting for 0.2% of all food-borne illness. A subsequent study estimated yearly incidence at 63,623 cases (2010 publication).

Year(s) / Reported outbreaks / Outbreak cases
1969 / 3 / 14
1971 / 0
1972 / 0
1973 / 1 / 2
1974 / 1 / 11
1975 / 3 / 45
1976 / 2 / 63
1980 / 9 *
1981 / 8 **
1993 to 1997 / 14 / 691
1998 to 2002 / 37 / 571
2006 / 13 / 72
2007 / 19 / 164
2008 / 15 / 122
* Included such vehicles as beef, turkey and Mexican foods
** Most involved rice and shellfish

Published outbreaks:
1976 (publication year) – An outbreak (4 cases) was associated with contaminated vegetable sprouts.
1981 (publication year) – An outbreak (4 cases) at a cafeteria was ascribed to contaminated macaroni-and-cheese.
1985 – An outbreak (11 cases) was associated with a Japanese restaurant in Maine.
1988 (publication year) – An outbreak at a Rhode Island nursing home was associated with consumption of beef stew.
1989 – An outbreak was reported at a catered wedding reception in California.
1993 (publication year) – An outbreak (139 cases) was associated with pork served at a university field day.
1993 – An outbreak among children and staff at two day-care centers in Virginia was associated with contaminated fried rice.
1998 – An outbreak (7 cases) at a church day school in Texas was ascribed to rice contaminated by handling.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2011. 1030 pp, 464 graphs, 8237 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/

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