Hepatitis A in English-speaking Countries

Saturday, March 3rd, 2012

A recent outbreak in Aukland belies the fact that rates of hepatitis A in New Zealand are low. In fact, since 2000 incidence figures for all forms of viral hepatitis in this country have even been exceeded by those of leptospirosis and rheumatic fever [1] – see graph [2]:

During the same period, rates of hepatitis A among the six major English-speaking countries have been decreasing, and continue to be surprisingly similar – see graph:

Only one country in this group, the United States, employs routine vaccination against Hepatitis A. Two other countries, Canada and Australia, administer the vaccine to high-risk populations only. [2]

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of New Zealand, 2012. 413 pp, 136 graphs, 1534 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-new-zealand/
2. Gideon graph tool at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
3. Berger SA. Hepatitis A: Global Status, 2012. 166 pp, 181 graphs, 1189 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatitis-a-global-status/

Note featured in ProMED

Campylobacter in the United Kingdom

Saturday, November 26th, 2011

Reports of campylobacteriosis in the United Kingdom have increased since the 1990′s, and continue to exceed the combined incidence of all other reportable gastrointestinal pathogens [1,2]: see graph [3] .

Campylobacteriosis rates in Scotland are similar to those of England and Wales, while those of Northern Ireland more closely resemble rates reported by the Irish Republic. [1,2] See graph [3] :

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2011. 992 pp, 786 graphs, 2594 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Campylobacteriosis: Global Status, 2011. 94 pp, 93 graphs, 717 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/campylobacteriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps )

Note reproduced by ProMED

Salmonellosis – U.K. and International Outbreaks

Friday, September 24th, 2010

Recent cross-border oubreaks belie the fact that salmonellosis activity in the United Kingdom has actually declined in recent years. In fact, since 1997, reporting rates for England, Scotland and Wales have been similar to the lower figures which had existed in Ireland and Northern Ireland. The following data are extracted from the Gideon e-book series. [1-3]

The following chronlogy of earlier international salmonellosis outbreaks (not including clusters among tourists) is extracted from reference [4]:

Outbreaks involving two or more countries (primary references available on request)
1973 (publication year) – An international outbreak of Salmonella agona infection was reported.
1973 to 1974 – An outbreak (80 cases in the U.S. and 39 in Canada) of Salmonella Eastborne infection was caused by contaminated chocolate.
1982 – An outbreak (245 cases) of Salmonella napoli infection in England and Wales was caused by contaminated chocolate bars imported from Italy.
1991 – An outbreak (400 cases or more) of Salmonella poona infection in the United States and Canada was caused by contaminated American and Central American cantaloupe.
1995 – An outbreak (27 cases in the U.K.) of Salmonella agona infection was caused by a savoury snack imported from Israel.
1995 – An outbreak ( 242 cases, approximate) in the United States and Finland of Salmonella serotype Stanley infection was traced to Alfalfa sprouts.
1996 to 1997 – An outbreak (22 cases) of S. enterica serotype Anatum infection was caused by contaminated dried formula milk – resulting in 13 cases in England, 4 Scotland, 4 France and 1 Belgium.
1997 – An outbreak of S. livingstone infection was reported in Western Europe – several of the cases were acquired abroad, notably in Tunisia.
1997 – An outbreak (24 cases) of Salmonella serogroup Saphra infection in California was associated with imported Mexican cantaloupe.
1997 to 1998 – An outbreak of Salmonella Newport infection associated with contaminated cured ham was reported in the United Kingdom and Finland.
1998 – Outbreaks of Salmonella blockley infection were reported in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Finland and the United Kingdom – smoked eel implicated in some countries.
1999 – An outbreak (275 cases) of Salmonella paratyphi B infection was reported among European tourists who visited Turkey during the summer of 1999.
1999 – An outbreak (400 cases or more, 21 hospitalized) of Salmonella muenchen infection from orange juice affected 25 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces (22 cases).
2000 – Outbreaks of Salmonella typhimurium DT204b infection (total 396 cases) which may have been related occurred in Iceland, England and Wales, the Netherlands, Scotland and Germany. Contaminated lettuce was implicated.
2000 to 2001 – An outbreak (168 cases, total) of S. enteritidis phage type 30 infection (157 cases in Canada, 11 in the United States) was caused by contaminated raw almonds.
2000 to 2002 – Outbreaks (148 cases, total) of Salmonella poona infection (47 cases in 2000, 50 in 2001, 58 in 2002) from imported Mexican cantaloupe were reported in multiple American states and Canada.
2001 – Outbreaks of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 infection caused by a batch of imported Turkish halvah were reported in Australia and Sweden. Contaminated halvah was also identified in Germany, Norway and the United Kingdom.
2001 – An outbreak (99 total cases) of Salmonella Stanley infection in Australia (60 cases) and Canada (33 cases) was associated with contaminated peanuts imported from China.
2001 – An outbreak of Salmonella oranienburg due to contaminated German chocolate affected several European countries.
2001 – An outbreak (303 cases) of Salmonella enteritidis anaerogenic PT 14b infection was reported among Norwegian, Finish and Swedish tourists returning from Crete and Karpathos. The probable source was contaminated poultry.
2001 – An outbreak of Salmonella Schwarzenground infections in Denmark and the United States was traced to contaminated chickens in Thailand.
2003 – Outbreaks of Salmonella Montevideo infection in Australia and New Zealand were caused by contaminated sesame seed products (Tahini and Halva) imported from Egypt and Lebanon.
2004 – Raw almonds contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis were recalled by the manufacturer from China, Taiwan, Democratic Republic of Korea, France, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico and the United Kingdom.
2004 – Ruccola lettuce contaminated with Salmonella Thompson was identified in Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
2005 – An outbreak (5 cases, total) of Salomonella enterica serotype Thompson infection (3 cases in Canada and 2 in United States) was caused by handling contaminated pet treats.
2005 – An outbreak (48 cases, total) of Salmonella stoubridge infection in Sweden (6 cases), Switzerland (3), Germany (2), Austria (5), United Kingdom (3) and France (27) was caused by unpasteurized French soft cheese.
2005 – An outbreak (178 cases) of Salmonella Goldcoast infection in Majorca affected tourists from Scotland (37), Ireland (6), Sweden (6), Norway (8), Denmark (3), Germany (20) and Finland (4).
2005 – An outbreak (22 cases) of Salmonella typhimurum DT 104 infection in Denmark was caused by raw beef carpacio imported from Italy.
2006 – An outbreak (13 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Sweden was caused by contaminated salami imported from Italy.
2007 – An outbreak (10 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium infection in Denmark (6 cases) and Norway (4 cases) was caused by imported Spanish sausage.
2007 – An outbreak (63 cases) of Salmonella senftenberg infection in England and Wales (51 cases), Denmark (11) and the Netherlands (2) was ascribed to contaminated basil imported from Israel. Subsequent testing of local batches of basil failed to demonstrate the organism.
2007 – An outbreak (45 cases, total) of Salmonella Weltevreden infections in Norway (19 cases), Denmark (19 cases) and Finland (7 cases) was associated with alfalfa sprouts distributed from Denmark. 2007 – An outbreak (354 cases) of Salmonella paratyphi B variant Java (Salmonella Java) infection in Netherlands (12 cases), Sweden (172), Norway (25), Ireland (9), Hungary (3), Finland (9), Denmark (40) and Austria (2) was ascribed to contaminated baby spinach.
2008 – An outbreak (59 cases) of Salmonella Litchfield infection in 16 American states (50 cases) and Canada (9 cases) was caused by contaminated melon from Honduras.
2008 – An outbreak (141 cases) of Salmonella serotype Agona infection in England (80 cases), Wales (10), Ireland (11) , Northern Ireland (1) , Scotland (31) Sweden (2), France (1) and Finland (1) was ascribed to contaminated commercial sandwiches.
2008 – An outbreak (74 cases) of Salmonella enterica serotype poona infection included 26 cases in Canada and 48 in the United States.
2008 – An outbreak (49 cases) of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium U288 infection from contaminated pork products included 37 cases (4 fatal) in Denmark, 10 in Norway and 2 in Sweden.
2008 to 2010 – An outbreak (400 cases) of Salmonella typhimurium DT 191a infections in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland was related to pet reptiles which were fed with contaminated frozen mice. Subsequent outbreak cases (34) were reported in multiple American states in 2010.
2009 – An outbreak (137 cases) of Salmonella oranienburg infection included 38 cases in the United Kingdom, 85 in the United States, 7 in Canada and 7 in Scotland.
2009 – An outbreak (124 cases in the United States and 12 in Canada) of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium infections was ascribed to possible contamination of shredded lettuce.
2010 – An outbreak (14 cases) of Salmonella urbana infection included cases in in Finland, the Czech Republic and Latvia.

1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 956 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Ireland and Northern Ireland, 433 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-ireland-and-northern-ireland/
3. Berger SA. Salmonellosis: Global Status, 237 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
4. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the World, 929 pp. 2010. Gideon e-book series. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-world/

Malaria in Ireland

Wednesday, June 9th, 2010

Although increasing numbers of malaria cases have been reported in Ireland in recent years, disease rates for Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom as a whole have actually declined. [1,2]

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Ireland and Northern Ireland, 2010. Gideon e-book series, 437 pp. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-ireland-and-northern-ireland/
2. Berger SA. Malaria: Global Status, 2010. Gideon e-boon series, 378 pp. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/malaria-global-status/

Leptospirosis in Ireland

Tuesday, January 5th, 2010

A recent death in Ireland highlights the fact that the incidence of leptospirosis in this country has been increasing in recent years. In fact, during the past decade, leptospirosis rates have expanded well beyond those of those of the United Kingdom, including those for adjoining Northern Ireland. See graph:

Update: Published in ProMED

Cryptosporidiosis in Ireland

Monday, April 16th, 2007

Cryptosporidiosis rates in Ireland + surroundingsAnother post in ProMED from Steve describing Cryptosporidiosis in Ireland with a graph comparing rates in neighboring regions:

Background data:
Rates of Cryptosporiosis in Ireland and adjacent countries have been similar since the 1980′s.

Cryptosporidiosis became a notifiable disease in Ireland in January 2004, with 61 percent of cases having been reported during April to June [?2004]. A total of 5 outbreaks (25 outbreak cases) was reported in 2004. A total of 6 outbreaks (49 outbreak cases) was reported in 2005.

Prevalence surveys:
4 percent of gastroenteritis among children.
4 percent of diarrhea requiring hospitalization among Dublin Children 1987.
149 cases were reported among children below age 2 years in 2002; 106 in 2003.
64 patients were hospitalized for cryptosporidiosis in 1999; 57 in 2000; 65 in
2001; 53 in 2002. 70 cases (18 per 100 000) were reported by the South-Eastern Health Board in 2001. 66 cases (19 per 100 000) were reported by the Western Health Board in 2001.

Infected local shellfish species:
_Mytilus edulis_ (Common mussel) in the Sligo Area
_Dreissena polymorpha_ (Zebra mussel) in the Shannon River drainage area.

Notable outbreaks:
2002 – Outbreaks (3 outbreaks, 65 cases) were reported, including a water-borne outbreak more than 32 cases) in the Midland region.
2005 – An outbreak (31 cases) in the western region was associated with contaminated water.
2007 – An outbreak (125 cases) was reported in Galway.

Northern Ireland:
Notable outbreaks:
2000 – An outbreak (121 confirmed cases) was reported – with most cases in the County Antrim and County Down towns of Lisburn and Bangor.
2001 – An outbreak (230 confirmed cases) was reported in Belfast – source unknown.
2001 – An outbreak (57 cases) was reported in Ulster – source unknown.
2001 – An outbreak (110 cases) was reported in Eastern Health Board – ascribed to contamination of water from the Dunmore treatment facility.
2003 – An outbreak (391 cases) was reported among British tourists at a hotel in Majorca – 179 from England and Wales, 170 from Scotland and 42 from Northern Ireland.
2004 – An outbreak (14 cases) was reported in the Midland Health Board – ascribed to a contaminated water supply.