Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Listeriosis in Scandinavia

Thursday, February 27th, 2014

Rates of listeriosis have been increasing in Scandinavia for over 20 years, and are currrently 2- to 5-fold those reported in the United States – see graph (black arrow = United States) [1-3]

ListeriaSweden

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2014. 484 pages, 137 graphs, 2,231 references Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2014. 101 pages, 105 graphs, 746 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Bacterial Diarrhea in Australia

Wednesday, February 26th, 2014

Notwithstanding recent outbreaks among men-who-have-sex-with-men, the incidence of shigellosis in Australia has remained remarkably constant for over eighty years. In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates in Australia and New Zealand with those reported in the United States. [1-3]

ShigANU

In fact, most other forms of bacterial diarrhea have become far more common than shigellosis in Australia – see graph:

AustDiarrhea

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Shigellosis: Global Status, 2014.
162 pages, 199 graphs, 1,076 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/shigellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

MMRV – Deaths in the United States

Friday, February 21st, 2014

Death rates from varicella and other vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. decreased dramatically as a result of widespread vaccination. [1] In the following graph, arrows indicate the years that varicella (blue) and measles (yellow) vaccines were introduced into the standard vaccine schedule. [2]

MMRV-Deaths

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1145 pages, 478 graphs, 12294 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool – see http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom

Friday, February 14th, 2014

The following background data on Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (Primary references available from author)

England and Wales:
288 cases were reported through laboratory testing during 1989 to 2002, with decreasing incidence since the 1990’s (see graph). The annual disease rate is estimated at 0.2 per 100,000.

EW-Toxocara

Prevalence surveys:
25% of dog hair samples (2003 publication)
7.2% of suburban dogs (1977 publication)
2% to 4% of dogs associated with a charity for deaf persons. (Bucks, 2007 publication)
1.4% of dogs with gastrointestinal disease (2003 to 2005)
91% of farm cats (1989)
53.3% of feral cats in London and Sheffield (1981 publication)
11.5% of domestic cats in London (1981 publication)
34.8% of stray urban cats (1978 to 1980)
16% of healthy kittens (2009 publication)
55.9% to 61.6% of foxes (2003 publication)
13.3% of soil samples in Leeds (1976)
5.2% of public parks and private gardens in London (1975)
66% of London parks (1984 to 1985)
6.3 of soil samples from London parks and gardens (1991 publication)

Seroprevalence surveys:
2.0% to 2.6%; 15.7% of dog breeders (1978)
47% of cull ewes in Powys and Gwent (2006 publication)
7% to 47% of sheep in Wales (2006 publication)

Scotland:
The reported incidence of toxocariasis varies from 0 to 4 cases per year (1992 to 2012).

Prevalence surveys:
20.9% of stray dogs in Glasgow (1975 to 1977)
12% of parks in Glasgow (1980)
33% of stray cats (1980)

Toxocara cati has also been identified in wild cats in northeastern Scotland.

Northern Ireland:
Although no cases of toxocariasis were reported during 2001 to 2012, the disease is relatively common among both humans and animals in neighboring Republic of Ireland.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2013. 1106 pages, 946 graphs, 3,801 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Toxocariasis: Global Status, 2013. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/toxocariasis-global-status/

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Varicella – Thailand vs. United States

Monday, February 10th, 2014

An increasing incidence of varicella in Thailand is almost the mirror image of American data (see graph [1]).

Thailand-Varicella

In fact, rates in the United States had already been decreasing for several years before the introduction of routine vaccination. Seroprevalence studies in the two populations are not dissimilar, and the striking difference in disease rates are difficult to explain. The following data are extracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [2-4] (Primary references are available on request.)

Varicella – seroprevalence surveys:

United States
93.6% for persons ages 6 to 19 years, and 98.0% for persons ages 20 to 49 years (1999 to 2004)
84% to 95% of women of child bearing age in New York City (1976 publication)
99.7% of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in California, and 97.9% attending an antenatal clinic in Philadelphia. Only 6.8% and 17.4% of women who self-reported negative or uncertain varicella history were seronegative. (2007 publication)
77% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Buffalo, New York, 2005 to 2009)
98% of child-care providers in Seattle Washington (1996 publication)
88.1% of post-vaccination health-care workers (2013 publication)
95.9% of Coast Guard recruits (2003 publication)
82% of Somali refugees living in Minnesota (2007 publication)
97% of U.S.-bound refugees (2013 publication)
92% of Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas (2011 publication)

Thailand
10% of infants; 24% pre-school; 67% school children; 74% young adults; 98% over age 30 (1994, Bangkok area)
15.5% in the age group 9 months to 4 years; 75.9% in the age group 20 to 29 years (1997 to 1998, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Had Yai)
82.3% of medical students in a hospital (Pratumthani, 2006 to 2007)
97.6% of medical students (2012 publication)

References:
1. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2014. 516 pages, 165 graphs 2659 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1119 pages 470 graphs 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
4. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2014. 117 pages 132 graphs 565 references http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/

Leprosy in Nigeria

Sunday, November 17th, 2013

Leprosy rates in Nigeria have been decreasing slowly since the 1990’s, and are similar to those of surrounding countries and Africa as a whole. [1,2] See graph [3]:

Leprosy-Africa

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Nigeria, 2013. 442 pages, 62 graphs, 2519 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-nigeria/
2. Berger SA. Leprosy: Global status, 2013. 238 pages, 377 graphs, 276 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leprosy-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Fatal Plague in Madagascar

Saturday, October 19th, 2013

Madagascar accounts for most plague deaths in the world – see graph

plague deaths

Gonorrhea in Sweden

Wednesday, June 19th, 2013

Notwithstanding a slight resurgence during the past 5 years, rates of gonorrhea in Sweden and other Scandinavian countries have decreased dramatically since 1980 and continue to be strikingly similar [1,2] – See graph [3] :

GC-Scandinavia

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2013. 458 pages, 135 graphs, 2059 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Gonococcal infection: Global Status, 2013. 180 pages, 243 graphs, 1075 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/gonococcal-infection-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Psittacosis in Argentina

Monday, May 6th, 2013

Rates of psittacosis in Argentina have been increasing in recent years, with current levels similar to those encountered in the United States during the outbreaks of 1954 to 1956. [1,2] See graph [3]:

Ornithosis-Argentina

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Argentna, 2013. 447 pages, 103 graphs, 2145 references. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-argentina/
2. Berger SA. Ornithosis: Global Status, 2013. 38 pages, 30 graphs, 212 references. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/ornithosis-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Q-fever in Spain

Friday, May 3rd, 2013

The following background data on Q-fever in Spain are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

Time and Place:
The first cases of Q-fever in Spain were reported in 1950. Q-fever rates are highest in the Basque region (accounting for 60% of community-acquired pneumonias) and Navarre. Pneumonia is the predominant clinical presentation in the north, and hepatitis in the south. Ten outbreaks were registered during 1981 to 1985. 130 cases of Q-fever were reported in the Basque Country during 1981 to 1984; and 1,261 cases in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country) during 1984 to 2004.

Rates of Q-fever in Spain have been decreasing for over 25 years – see graph:

QfeverSpain

Prevalence surveys:
5% of community-acquired pneumonia in Palma de Mallorca (1992 to 1994)
18.5% of community-acquired pneumonia (2006 to 2007)
30% of patients with fever exceeding 7 days
20.1% of women with spontaneous abortion vs. 9.7% of controls (Burgos, 2009 to 2010)
13.7% of patients hospitalized with fever lasting 1 to 4 weeks (Grenada, 2000 to 2005)
3% of ovine flocks in northern Spain (1999 to 2003)
22% of sheep flocks in the Basque Country (2009 publication)
5.1% of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 4.3% of wild boar (Sus scrofa), 9.1% of European hare (Lepus europaeus), 11% of vultures (Gyps fulvus) , 14% of black kites (Milvus migrans) and 0% of associated ticks (Basque region, 2010 publication)

Coxiella burnetii has been detected in ticks (Haemaphysalis punctata) in the Basque Country (2003 to 2005)

Seroprevalence surveys:
50% of persons in rural Soria Province (1996 to 1999)
38.5% of adults in the rural Basque Country (1993 publication)
40.6% of adults in Leon Province (1996 publication)
48.6% of adults in Eastern Cantabria (1998 publication)
10.02% to 11.02% of veterinary students in Zaragoza (2000 publication)
15.3% of the population of Valles Occidental (2006 publication)
23.1% of blood donors in Albacete (2007 publication)
11.8% of sheep, 8.7% of goats and 6.7% of beef cattle in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain (2010 publication)
30% of herds and 6.76% of cattle in the Madrid region (2012 publication)

Notable outbreaks:
1982 – An outbreak (42 cases) of Q-fever was reported in Valmaseda, Basque region.
1990 – An outbreak (30 cases) was reported in Billabona and Zizurkil, Guipuzcoa.
1998 – An outbreak (14 cases) related to sheep was reported in Soria Province.
2003 – An outbreak (60 cases) was reported in Asturias.
2006 (publication year) – An outbreak (22 cases) was associated with a visit to a school farm.
2012 (publication year) – An outbreak was reported in flock of sheep.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Spain, 2013. 575 pages, 194 graphs, 3284 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-spain/
2. Berger SA. Q-fever: Global Status, 2013. 78 pages, 58 graphs, 1035 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/q-fever-global-status/

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