Archive for the ‘Graphs’ Category

Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom

Friday, February 14th, 2014

The following background data on Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (Primary references available from author)

England and Wales:
288 cases were reported through laboratory testing during 1989 to 2002, with decreasing incidence since the 1990’s (see graph). The annual disease rate is estimated at 0.2 per 100,000.

EW-Toxocara

Prevalence surveys:
25% of dog hair samples (2003 publication)
7.2% of suburban dogs (1977 publication)
2% to 4% of dogs associated with a charity for deaf persons. (Bucks, 2007 publication)
1.4% of dogs with gastrointestinal disease (2003 to 2005)
91% of farm cats (1989)
53.3% of feral cats in London and Sheffield (1981 publication)
11.5% of domestic cats in London (1981 publication)
34.8% of stray urban cats (1978 to 1980)
16% of healthy kittens (2009 publication)
55.9% to 61.6% of foxes (2003 publication)
13.3% of soil samples in Leeds (1976)
5.2% of public parks and private gardens in London (1975)
66% of London parks (1984 to 1985)
6.3 of soil samples from London parks and gardens (1991 publication)

Seroprevalence surveys:
2.0% to 2.6%; 15.7% of dog breeders (1978)
47% of cull ewes in Powys and Gwent (2006 publication)
7% to 47% of sheep in Wales (2006 publication)

Scotland:
The reported incidence of toxocariasis varies from 0 to 4 cases per year (1992 to 2012).

Prevalence surveys:
20.9% of stray dogs in Glasgow (1975 to 1977)
12% of parks in Glasgow (1980)
33% of stray cats (1980)

Toxocara cati has also been identified in wild cats in northeastern Scotland.

Northern Ireland:
Although no cases of toxocariasis were reported during 2001 to 2012, the disease is relatively common among both humans and animals in neighboring Republic of Ireland.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2013. 1106 pages, 946 graphs, 3,801 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Toxocariasis: Global Status, 2013. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/toxocariasis-global-status/

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Varicella – Thailand vs. United States

Monday, February 10th, 2014

An increasing incidence of varicella in Thailand is almost the mirror image of American data (see graph [1]).

Thailand-Varicella

In fact, rates in the United States had already been decreasing for several years before the introduction of routine vaccination. Seroprevalence studies in the two populations are not dissimilar, and the striking difference in disease rates are difficult to explain. The following data are extracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [2-4] (Primary references are available on request.)

Varicella – seroprevalence surveys:

United States
93.6% for persons ages 6 to 19 years, and 98.0% for persons ages 20 to 49 years (1999 to 2004)
84% to 95% of women of child bearing age in New York City (1976 publication)
99.7% of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in California, and 97.9% attending an antenatal clinic in Philadelphia. Only 6.8% and 17.4% of women who self-reported negative or uncertain varicella history were seronegative. (2007 publication)
77% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Buffalo, New York, 2005 to 2009)
98% of child-care providers in Seattle Washington (1996 publication)
88.1% of post-vaccination health-care workers (2013 publication)
95.9% of Coast Guard recruits (2003 publication)
82% of Somali refugees living in Minnesota (2007 publication)
97% of U.S.-bound refugees (2013 publication)
92% of Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas (2011 publication)

Thailand
10% of infants; 24% pre-school; 67% school children; 74% young adults; 98% over age 30 (1994, Bangkok area)
15.5% in the age group 9 months to 4 years; 75.9% in the age group 20 to 29 years (1997 to 1998, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Had Yai)
82.3% of medical students in a hospital (Pratumthani, 2006 to 2007)
97.6% of medical students (2012 publication)

References:
1. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2014. 516 pages, 165 graphs 2659 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1119 pages 470 graphs 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
4. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2014. 117 pages 132 graphs 565 references http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/

Leprosy in Nigeria

Sunday, November 17th, 2013

Leprosy rates in Nigeria have been decreasing slowly since the 1990’s, and are similar to those of surrounding countries and Africa as a whole. [1,2] See graph [3]:

Leprosy-Africa

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Nigeria, 2013. 442 pages, 62 graphs, 2519 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-nigeria/
2. Berger SA. Leprosy: Global status, 2013. 238 pages, 377 graphs, 276 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leprosy-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Fatal Plague in Madagascar

Saturday, October 19th, 2013

Madagascar accounts for most plague deaths in the world – see graph

plague deaths

Gonorrhea in Sweden

Wednesday, June 19th, 2013

Notwithstanding a slight resurgence during the past 5 years, rates of gonorrhea in Sweden and other Scandinavian countries have decreased dramatically since 1980 and continue to be strikingly similar [1,2] – See graph [3] :

GC-Scandinavia

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2013. 458 pages, 135 graphs, 2059 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Gonococcal infection: Global Status, 2013. 180 pages, 243 graphs, 1075 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/gonococcal-infection-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Psittacosis in Argentina

Monday, May 6th, 2013

Rates of psittacosis in Argentina have been increasing in recent years, with current levels similar to those encountered in the United States during the outbreaks of 1954 to 1956. [1,2] See graph [3]:

Ornithosis-Argentina

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Argentna, 2013. 447 pages, 103 graphs, 2145 references. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-argentina/
2. Berger SA. Ornithosis: Global Status, 2013. 38 pages, 30 graphs, 212 references. Gideon e-book series, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/ornithosis-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Q-fever in Spain

Friday, May 3rd, 2013

The following background data on Q-fever in Spain are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

Time and Place:
The first cases of Q-fever in Spain were reported in 1950. Q-fever rates are highest in the Basque region (accounting for 60% of community-acquired pneumonias) and Navarre. Pneumonia is the predominant clinical presentation in the north, and hepatitis in the south. Ten outbreaks were registered during 1981 to 1985. 130 cases of Q-fever were reported in the Basque Country during 1981 to 1984; and 1,261 cases in Gipuzkoa (Basque Country) during 1984 to 2004.

Rates of Q-fever in Spain have been decreasing for over 25 years – see graph:

QfeverSpain

Prevalence surveys:
5% of community-acquired pneumonia in Palma de Mallorca (1992 to 1994)
18.5% of community-acquired pneumonia (2006 to 2007)
30% of patients with fever exceeding 7 days
20.1% of women with spontaneous abortion vs. 9.7% of controls (Burgos, 2009 to 2010)
13.7% of patients hospitalized with fever lasting 1 to 4 weeks (Grenada, 2000 to 2005)
3% of ovine flocks in northern Spain (1999 to 2003)
22% of sheep flocks in the Basque Country (2009 publication)
5.1% of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 4.3% of wild boar (Sus scrofa), 9.1% of European hare (Lepus europaeus), 11% of vultures (Gyps fulvus) , 14% of black kites (Milvus migrans) and 0% of associated ticks (Basque region, 2010 publication)

Coxiella burnetii has been detected in ticks (Haemaphysalis punctata) in the Basque Country (2003 to 2005)

Seroprevalence surveys:
50% of persons in rural Soria Province (1996 to 1999)
38.5% of adults in the rural Basque Country (1993 publication)
40.6% of adults in Leon Province (1996 publication)
48.6% of adults in Eastern Cantabria (1998 publication)
10.02% to 11.02% of veterinary students in Zaragoza (2000 publication)
15.3% of the population of Valles Occidental (2006 publication)
23.1% of blood donors in Albacete (2007 publication)
11.8% of sheep, 8.7% of goats and 6.7% of beef cattle in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain (2010 publication)
30% of herds and 6.76% of cattle in the Madrid region (2012 publication)

Notable outbreaks:
1982 – An outbreak (42 cases) of Q-fever was reported in Valmaseda, Basque region.
1990 – An outbreak (30 cases) was reported in Billabona and Zizurkil, Guipuzcoa.
1998 – An outbreak (14 cases) related to sheep was reported in Soria Province.
2003 – An outbreak (60 cases) was reported in Asturias.
2006 (publication year) – An outbreak (22 cases) was associated with a visit to a school farm.
2012 (publication year) – An outbreak was reported in flock of sheep.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Spain, 2013. 575 pages, 194 graphs, 3284 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-spain/
2. Berger SA. Q-fever: Global Status, 2013. 78 pages, 58 graphs, 1035 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/q-fever-global-status/

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Barmah Forest Disease in Australia

Tuesday, April 16th, 2013

The following background on Barmah Forest Disease in Australia is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

Barmah Forest disease virus was first isolated from mosquitoes (Culex annulirostris) in the Barmah Forest, Northern Victoria in 1974. Human infection was subsequently reported along the south coast of New South Wales during the mid-1980’s; in Queensland during 1988 to 1989; in the Northern Territory in 1992 ; and in southwestern Western Australia in 1993. A new focus was described in Gippsland (Victoria) during 1993 to 1994. The number of localities reporting Barmah Forest Disease increased during 1996 to 1998, and again during 1999 to 2001.

Disease incidence has increased somewhat since 2000, with most cases reported from Queensland and New South Wales. In the following chart, I have contrasted incidence data for Barmah Forest disease with those of a similar illness, Ross River disease [3]

Barmah

Seroprevalence surveys:
6.5% of healthy adults in Queensland.
11.3% of horses in Brisbane, 1.2% of dogs, 10.7% of bushtail possum (Trichosaurus volpecula) , 1.5% of cats, 0% of flying foxes (1977 to 1999) 8

Vectors:
– The known vectors are Ochlerotatus vigilax, Culex annulirostris, Ae. (Oc.) camptorhynchus, Ae. normanensis and Coquillettidia species.
– Aedes notoscriptus is considered an additional potential vector.
– BFD virus has also been recovered from Aedes vigilax in eastern Australia (2005 to 2008)

Wallabies and kangaroos serve as reservoirs for the virus; however, antibody is also present in cattle and horses.

Related viruses:
– Similar local illnesses have been ascribed to Trubanaman and Gan Gan viruses (Bunyaviridae); and Kokobera, Stratford and Edge Hill viruses (Flaviviridae).
– A single human case of Edge Hill virus infection has been described.
– A case of Kokobera fever was reported from Darwin in 1998.
– Kokobera virus has been isolated from Culex annulirostris in the Northern Territory and northern Queensland.
– Kokobera virus was isolated from 18 of 25,351 Cx. annulirostris tested in Cape York in 1998.

Notable outbreaks:
1992 to 1994 – An outbreak (22 cases) of Barmah Forest disease was reported in the south-west of Western Australia.
1995 – An outbreak (135 cases) was reported along the south coast of New South Wales.
2002 – An outbreak (47 cases) was reported in Victoria.
2002 to 2003 – An outbreak (297 cases) was reported in Queensland.
2005 to 2006 – An outbreak (1,895 cases) was reported.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2013. 540 pages, 162 graphs, 3364 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2013. 32 pages, 20 graphs, 307 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-pacific-arboviruses-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Botulism in Argentina

Saturday, March 16th, 2013

The following background data on botulism in Argentina are abstracted from the Gideon e-book series. [1,2]

Most cases of botulism in Argentina are related to home-canned vegetables, airtight packed food with inappropriate refrigeration, and aerosols. Rates of food-borne botulism have remained fairly constant for the past 20 years, and as in many other countries are exceded by those of infant botulism – see graph [3] Virtally all cases of infant botulism have been caused by type A botulinum toxin.

Botulism-Argentina

Prevalence surveys (Clostridium botulinum spores):
7.5% of commercial chamomile tea samples (Mendoza, 2008 publication)
1.1% of rural commercial honey samples (Mendoza and San Luis Provinces, 1997 publication)
14.6% of soil samples in Entre Rios (2003 publication)
23.5% of soil samples from five regions (2005 publication)

Linden flower (Tilia spp) tea, a household remedy used as an infant sedative, has also been implicated as a source of Clostridium botulinum.

A single case report of wound botulism was published in 2000.

Notable outbreaks:
1920 to 1926 – Two outbreaks (total 8 cases) of botulism were reported.
1974 – An outbreak (11 cases, 3 fatal) was ascribed to cheese spread.
1979 – An outbreak (9 cases) was ascribed to home-canned vegetables.
1982 – An outbreak (1 case) in Mendoza was ascribed to pickled trout.
1998 – An outbreak (9 cases, none fatal) of type A botulism among Buenos Aires bus drivers was ascribed to matambre (meat roll).
2011 – An outbreak (2 cases) was reported among members of a family from Chile who had eaten in a restaurant in Argentina.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Argentina, 2013. 447 pages, 103 graphs, 2145 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-argentina/
2. Berger SA. Botulism: Global Status, 2013. 85 pages, 90 graphs, 645 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/botulism-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Botulism Trends in the United States

Sunday, January 20th, 2013

Infants account for most cases of botulism reported in the United States. Although the ratio of infant / food-borne cases was fairly constant prior to 1999, subsequent trends appear to signal a parallel increase in infant and decrease in food-borne botulism. [1,2] See graph [3]

BotulismUS

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2012. 1089 pages, 467 graphs, 9760 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Berger SA. Botulism: Global Status, 2012. 84 pages, 89 graphs, 599 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/botulism-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps