Archive for the ‘Epidemiology’ Category

Campylobacter and Yersinia in Scandinavia

Saturday, April 26th, 2014

The incidence of yersiniosis in Scandinavia has been declining in recent years, while that of campylobacteriosis continues to increase. Regional rates for both diseases exceed those reported for the European Union (see graph). [1-3]

YerCampScand

1. Berger SA. Campylobacteriosis: Global Status, 2014. 104 pages, 96 graphs, 1073 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/campylobacteriosis-global-status/
2. Berger SA. Yersiniosis: Global Status, 2014. 59 pages, 59 graphs, 382 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/yersiniosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – see http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Australia: Barmah Forest Disease vs. Ross River Disease

Monday, April 21st, 2014

Rates of Barmah Forest disease in Queensland, and Australia as a whole, have now overtaken those of Ross River disease [1-3] – see graph

BFD-RRF

1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2014. 33 pages, 20 graphs, 336 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-pacific-arboviruses-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Pasteurellosis in England and Wales

Sunday, April 20th, 2014

Few countries publish reports of Pasteurella multocida infection on a national level. The incidence of human pasteurellosis in the United Kingdom increased from 172 cases in 1972, to 426 in 2006 and 466 in 2007. Five fatal cases were reported during 1993 to 2006. Reporting trends for P. multicida infection in England and Wales are depicted in the following graph:

Pmultocida-UK

Reference:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2014. 1,154 pages, 959 graphs, 4,208 references. Gideon e-books,

Note featured on ProMED

Anaplasmosis in Germany

Sunday, April 20th, 2014

The following data on Anaplasmosis in Germany are abstracted from the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references available on request).

Prevalence surveys:
5.3% of rodents and 1% of Ixodes ricinus in Stuttgart (2008 publication)
3.2% of Ixodes ricinus adults and 2.3% of nymphs. 0.9% of infected ticks were found to carry Borrelia spp. (Hanover, 2011 publication)
61.8% of blood samples from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), 73.4% of associated Ixodes ricinus and 26.6% of Ixodes hexagonus (2007 to 2008)
3.2% of bird-feeding and 1.1% of rodent-feeding ticks in central Germany (2007)
1.4% of bird-feeding Ixodes ricinus in middle Germany (2007)
2.6% of bird-feeding Ixodes ricinus on a conservation island in the Baltic Sea (2007)
2.6% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from wild birds in the Baltic region (2007)
4.5% of hard ticks in Hanover (2010)
3.6% of Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg (2011)
1.0% of Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation on the Baltic coast (2008)
2.9% of questing Ixodes ricinus in Bavaria (2006)
8.7% of questing Ixodes ricinus in Leipzig (2009)
11.6% / 13.3% of adult female / male Ixodes ricinus females / males in Bavarian public parks in 2009; 8.5% / 9.2% in 2010
0% of questing adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the outskirts of Berlin (2012 publication)
8.2% of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 23% of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Brandenburg (2014 publication)
98.9% of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 86.1% of engorged deer ticks (Bavaria, 2010 to 2012)

Seroprevalence surveys:
14.0% of forestry workers, 11.4% of Lyme disease patients, and 1.9% of blood donors in southern Germany (1983 to 1984)
5.5% of persons in the Rhine-Main area – including 13.1% of patients with Lyme disease in the same region (1999 publication)
4.9% of military personnel in southwestern Germany
15% of hunters in Styria and Burgenland (2003 publication)
4.5% of persons seropositive toward Borrelia burgdorferi, and 1.2% of seronegatives (Berlin/Brandenburg, 1994 to 2001)
50.1% of dogs under investigation for anaplasmosis (2006 publication)
19.4% of dogs in Munich (2012 publication)
43% of dogs in northeast Germany (2010 publication)
17.8% of imported and traveling dogs (2010 publication)
43.2% of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs (2007 publication)
43.2% of hunting dogs in Baden-Wurttemberg region (2007)
16.2% of cats in Bavaria and Lower Saxony (2012 publication)
9.1% of cats in Berlin / Brandenburg (2012 publication)

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Germany, 2014. 565 pages, 148 graphs, 3,318 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-germany/
2. Berger SA. Anaplasmosis: Global Status, 2014. 33 pages, 545 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/anaplasmosis-global-status/

Note featured on ProMED

Angiostrongyliasis and Travel

Friday, April 11th, 2014

The following chronology of travel-associated angiostrongyliasis is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series [1]

Four cases of angiostrongyliasis has been reported in Victoria, Australia as of 1999 – including three (one fatal) imported from Fiji.
1982 (publication year) – An outbreak (16 cases) was reported among Korean fisherman in American Samoa – traced to ingestion of giant African snails (Achatina fulica).
1984 (publication year) – Three cases of angiostrongyliasis acquired in Western Samoa were treated at a hospital in New Zealand.
1988 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1995 – A Swiss traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1996 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1998 – An outbreak (6 cases) was reported among Thai laborers in Taiwan.
1999 – An outbreak was reported among Thai laborers in Taiwan.
1999 – A patient with angiostrongyliasis was transferred from Fiji to Australia, for treatment.
2000 – An outbreak (12 cases) among American tourists was caused by eating contaminated Caesar salad in Jamaica. An additional American tourist acquired the infection in Jamaica during 2001. 2001 (publication year) – Angiostrongyliasis was confirmed in an American tourist who had returned from Tonga.
2002 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
2004 (publication year) – Angiostrongyliasis was confirmed in a Swiss traveler who had returned from Cuba.
2006 – A Croatian seaman acquired angiostrongyliasis during travel to Malaysia and Singapore.
2006 – A German traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in the Dominican Republic.
2007 (publication year) – Eosinophilic meningitis reported in an Italian traveler to Santo Domingo.
2007 – A British traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Thailand.
2008 (publication year) – A Belgian traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis while traveling through Latin America and Fiji.
2008 (publication year) – An outbreak (5 cases) of angiostrongyliasis was reported among French policemen who had worked in French Polynesia.
2009 (publication year) – A German traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Thailand.

Reference:
1. Berger S. Angiostrongyliasis: Global Status, 2014. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/angiostrongyliasis-global-status/

Botulism in Italy

Sunday, March 30th, 2014

The following background information of botulism in Italy was abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references are available on request).

Botulism has been a notifiable disease in Italy since 1975. Mean disease rates are similar to those reported in the United States – see graph [3] :

Botulism-Italy

Vegetable preserves are implicated in 57% of cases, and ham and sausage in 15%. Recent outbreaks have been related to mushrooms in oil, pickled olives, fresh-cheese mascarpone and roasted eggplant in oil.

In 2012, a man in England acquired botulism from imported Italian olives.

Three cases of wound botulism were reported during 1988 to 1998; and the first report of wound botulism in an injecting drug user was published in 2010.

26 cases of infant botulism (and 3 of adult intestinal botulism) were reported during 1984 to 2006 (including 6 cases due to Clostridium butyricum toxin). Type A botulism accounted for 4 casers and type B for 17.

Only two outbreaks (5 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism were reported in Italy during 1903 to 1922. Five outbreaks were reported in 1998 alone.

Notable outbreaks:
1993 – Outbreaks (7 cases, in two outbreaks) of botulism were associated with commercially prepared roasted eggplant in oil.
1995 (publication year) – An outbreak was associated with consumption of home-cured ham.
1996 – An outbreak (8 cases) was ascribed to “tiramisu” which contained contaminated mascarpone cream cheese.
2004 – An outbreak (25 cases, 0 fatal) was caused by green olives served by a restaurant in Molise.
2011 – An outbreak (3 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism in Finland was caused by imported jarred olives from Italy.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2014. 544 pages, 114 graphs, 3390 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
2. Berger SA. Botulism: Global Status, 2014. 86 pages, 90 graphs, 704 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/botulism-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Note featured on ProMed

Listeriosis in Scandinavia

Thursday, February 27th, 2014

Rates of listeriosis have been increasing in Scandinavia for over 20 years, and are currrently 2- to 5-fold those reported in the United States – see graph (black arrow = United States) [1-3]

ListeriaSweden

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2014. 484 pages, 137 graphs, 2,231 references Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2014. 101 pages, 105 graphs, 746 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Note featured on ProMED

Bacterial Diarrhea in Australia

Wednesday, February 26th, 2014

Notwithstanding recent outbreaks among men-who-have-sex-with-men, the incidence of shigellosis in Australia has remained remarkably constant for over eighty years. In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates in Australia and New Zealand with those reported in the United States. [1-3]

ShigANU

In fact, most other forms of bacterial diarrhea have become far more common than shigellosis in Australia – see graph:

AustDiarrhea

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Shigellosis: Global Status, 2014.
162 pages, 199 graphs, 1,076 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/shigellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

MMRV – Deaths in the United States

Friday, February 21st, 2014

Death rates from varicella and other vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. decreased dramatically as a result of widespread vaccination. [1] In the following graph, arrows indicate the years that varicella (blue) and measles (yellow) vaccines were introduced into the standard vaccine schedule. [2]

MMRV-Deaths

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1145 pages, 478 graphs, 12294 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool – see http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom

Friday, February 14th, 2014

The following background data on Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (Primary references available from author)

England and Wales:
288 cases were reported through laboratory testing during 1989 to 2002, with decreasing incidence since the 1990’s (see graph). The annual disease rate is estimated at 0.2 per 100,000.

EW-Toxocara

Prevalence surveys:
25% of dog hair samples (2003 publication)
7.2% of suburban dogs (1977 publication)
2% to 4% of dogs associated with a charity for deaf persons. (Bucks, 2007 publication)
1.4% of dogs with gastrointestinal disease (2003 to 2005)
91% of farm cats (1989)
53.3% of feral cats in London and Sheffield (1981 publication)
11.5% of domestic cats in London (1981 publication)
34.8% of stray urban cats (1978 to 1980)
16% of healthy kittens (2009 publication)
55.9% to 61.6% of foxes (2003 publication)
13.3% of soil samples in Leeds (1976)
5.2% of public parks and private gardens in London (1975)
66% of London parks (1984 to 1985)
6.3 of soil samples from London parks and gardens (1991 publication)

Seroprevalence surveys:
2.0% to 2.6%; 15.7% of dog breeders (1978)
47% of cull ewes in Powys and Gwent (2006 publication)
7% to 47% of sheep in Wales (2006 publication)

Scotland:
The reported incidence of toxocariasis varies from 0 to 4 cases per year (1992 to 2012).

Prevalence surveys:
20.9% of stray dogs in Glasgow (1975 to 1977)
12% of parks in Glasgow (1980)
33% of stray cats (1980)

Toxocara cati has also been identified in wild cats in northeastern Scotland.

Northern Ireland:
Although no cases of toxocariasis were reported during 2001 to 2012, the disease is relatively common among both humans and animals in neighboring Republic of Ireland.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2013. 1106 pages, 946 graphs, 3,801 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Toxocariasis: Global Status, 2013. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/toxocariasis-global-status/

Note featured on ProMED http://www.promedmail.org/direct.php?id=2284511