Archive for the ‘Epidemiology’ Category

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Travel

Saturday, July 5th, 2014

Reports of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) related to travel are rare. The following chronology is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1]

1985 – South Africa ex. Democratic Republic of Congo (fatal).
1986 – South Africa ex. Tanzania (nonfatal)
1997 – An English traveler died of probable CCHF contracted in Zimbabwe.
2001 – A German tourist acquired Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria.
2004 – A case of imported Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (nonfatal) was reported in a traveler returning to France from Senegal. Infection in a second French national was diagnosed locally in Senegal.
2009 – An American soldier died in a hospital in Germany after contracting Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Afghanistan.
2011 – An outbreak (4 cases) in a Pakistan hospital was related to an index patient who had arrived from Afghanistan.
2012 – A patient died of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Scotland following acquisition of the disease in Afghanistan.
2013 – A woman died of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Uganda following contact with her infected husband in South Sudan.
2014 – A British traveler acquired Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria.

Reference:
1. Berger SA. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Global Status, 2014. 41 pages, 21 graphs, 658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-global-status/

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Deaths from Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Friday, June 27th, 2014

During 1961 to 1970, 207 deaths were ascribed to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF); and an estimated 612 patients died of the disease during 1983 to 1998. The highest mortality, 50 cases, was reported in 1970. In recent years, the case-fatality rate for RMSF has remained fairly constant at 0.4% to 0.8%. Among the tick-borne infections, Lyme disease has now eclipsed RMSF as a cause of death in the United States – see graph [1, 2]

TickDeaths

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1145 pages, 478 graphs, 12294 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Brucellosis Rates in Armenia

Monday, May 26th, 2014

The following graph summarizes rates of brucellosis in Armenia and neighboring countries. [1-3]

BrucellosisRates

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Armenia, 2014. 383 pages. 82 graphs, 1,424 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-armenia/
2. Berger SA. Brucellosis: Global Status, 2014. 137 pages, 136 graphs, 1,137 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/brucellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – see http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Campylobacter and Yersinia in Scandinavia

Saturday, April 26th, 2014

The incidence of yersiniosis in Scandinavia has been declining in recent years, while that of campylobacteriosis continues to increase. Regional rates for both diseases exceed those reported for the European Union (see graph). [1-3]

YerCampScand

1. Berger SA. Campylobacteriosis: Global Status, 2014. 104 pages, 96 graphs, 1073 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/campylobacteriosis-global-status/
2. Berger SA. Yersiniosis: Global Status, 2014. 59 pages, 59 graphs, 382 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/yersiniosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – see http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Australia: Barmah Forest Disease vs. Ross River Disease

Monday, April 21st, 2014

Rates of Barmah Forest disease in Queensland, and Australia as a whole, have now overtaken those of Ross River disease [1-3] – see graph

BFD-RRF

1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Australo-Pacific Arboviruses: Global Status, 2014. 33 pages, 20 graphs, 336 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/australo-pacific-arboviruses-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Pasteurellosis in England and Wales

Sunday, April 20th, 2014

Few countries publish reports of Pasteurella multocida infection on a national level. The incidence of human pasteurellosis in the United Kingdom increased from 172 cases in 1972, to 426 in 2006 and 466 in 2007. Five fatal cases were reported during 1993 to 2006. Reporting trends for P. multicida infection in England and Wales are depicted in the following graph:

Pmultocida-UK

Reference:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2014. 1,154 pages, 959 graphs, 4,208 references. Gideon e-books,

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Anaplasmosis in Germany

Sunday, April 20th, 2014

The following data on Anaplasmosis in Germany are abstracted from the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references available on request).

Prevalence surveys:
5.3% of rodents and 1% of Ixodes ricinus in Stuttgart (2008 publication)
3.2% of Ixodes ricinus adults and 2.3% of nymphs. 0.9% of infected ticks were found to carry Borrelia spp. (Hanover, 2011 publication)
61.8% of blood samples from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), 73.4% of associated Ixodes ricinus and 26.6% of Ixodes hexagonus (2007 to 2008)
3.2% of bird-feeding and 1.1% of rodent-feeding ticks in central Germany (2007)
1.4% of bird-feeding Ixodes ricinus in middle Germany (2007)
2.6% of bird-feeding Ixodes ricinus on a conservation island in the Baltic Sea (2007)
2.6% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from wild birds in the Baltic region (2007)
4.5% of hard ticks in Hanover (2010)
3.6% of Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg (2011)
1.0% of Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation on the Baltic coast (2008)
2.9% of questing Ixodes ricinus in Bavaria (2006)
8.7% of questing Ixodes ricinus in Leipzig (2009)
11.6% / 13.3% of adult female / male Ixodes ricinus females / males in Bavarian public parks in 2009; 8.5% / 9.2% in 2010
0% of questing adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the outskirts of Berlin (2012 publication)
8.2% of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 23% of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Brandenburg (2014 publication)
98.9% of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 86.1% of engorged deer ticks (Bavaria, 2010 to 2012)

Seroprevalence surveys:
14.0% of forestry workers, 11.4% of Lyme disease patients, and 1.9% of blood donors in southern Germany (1983 to 1984)
5.5% of persons in the Rhine-Main area – including 13.1% of patients with Lyme disease in the same region (1999 publication)
4.9% of military personnel in southwestern Germany
15% of hunters in Styria and Burgenland (2003 publication)
4.5% of persons seropositive toward Borrelia burgdorferi, and 1.2% of seronegatives (Berlin/Brandenburg, 1994 to 2001)
50.1% of dogs under investigation for anaplasmosis (2006 publication)
19.4% of dogs in Munich (2012 publication)
43% of dogs in northeast Germany (2010 publication)
17.8% of imported and traveling dogs (2010 publication)
43.2% of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs (2007 publication)
43.2% of hunting dogs in Baden-Wurttemberg region (2007)
16.2% of cats in Bavaria and Lower Saxony (2012 publication)
9.1% of cats in Berlin / Brandenburg (2012 publication)

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Germany, 2014. 565 pages, 148 graphs, 3,318 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-germany/
2. Berger SA. Anaplasmosis: Global Status, 2014. 33 pages, 545 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/anaplasmosis-global-status/

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Angiostrongyliasis and Travel

Friday, April 11th, 2014

The following chronology of travel-associated angiostrongyliasis is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series [1]

Four cases of angiostrongyliasis has been reported in Victoria, Australia as of 1999 – including three (one fatal) imported from Fiji.
1982 (publication year) – An outbreak (16 cases) was reported among Korean fisherman in American Samoa – traced to ingestion of giant African snails (Achatina fulica).
1984 (publication year) – Three cases of angiostrongyliasis acquired in Western Samoa were treated at a hospital in New Zealand.
1988 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1995 – A Swiss traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1996 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1998 – An outbreak (6 cases) was reported among Thai laborers in Taiwan.
1999 – An outbreak was reported among Thai laborers in Taiwan.
1999 – A patient with angiostrongyliasis was transferred from Fiji to Australia, for treatment.
2000 – An outbreak (12 cases) among American tourists was caused by eating contaminated Caesar salad in Jamaica. An additional American tourist acquired the infection in Jamaica during 2001. 2001 (publication year) – Angiostrongyliasis was confirmed in an American tourist who had returned from Tonga.
2002 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
2004 (publication year) – Angiostrongyliasis was confirmed in a Swiss traveler who had returned from Cuba.
2006 – A Croatian seaman acquired angiostrongyliasis during travel to Malaysia and Singapore.
2006 – A German traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in the Dominican Republic.
2007 (publication year) – Eosinophilic meningitis reported in an Italian traveler to Santo Domingo.
2007 – A British traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Thailand.
2008 (publication year) – A Belgian traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis while traveling through Latin America and Fiji.
2008 (publication year) – An outbreak (5 cases) of angiostrongyliasis was reported among French policemen who had worked in French Polynesia.
2009 (publication year) – A German traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Thailand.

Reference:
1. Berger S. Angiostrongyliasis: Global Status, 2014. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/angiostrongyliasis-global-status/

Botulism in Italy

Sunday, March 30th, 2014

The following background information of botulism in Italy was abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references are available on request).

Botulism has been a notifiable disease in Italy since 1975. Mean disease rates are similar to those reported in the United States – see graph [3] :

Botulism-Italy

Vegetable preserves are implicated in 57% of cases, and ham and sausage in 15%. Recent outbreaks have been related to mushrooms in oil, pickled olives, fresh-cheese mascarpone and roasted eggplant in oil.

In 2012, a man in England acquired botulism from imported Italian olives.

Three cases of wound botulism were reported during 1988 to 1998; and the first report of wound botulism in an injecting drug user was published in 2010.

26 cases of infant botulism (and 3 of adult intestinal botulism) were reported during 1984 to 2006 (including 6 cases due to Clostridium butyricum toxin). Type A botulism accounted for 4 casers and type B for 17.

Only two outbreaks (5 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism were reported in Italy during 1903 to 1922. Five outbreaks were reported in 1998 alone.

Notable outbreaks:
1993 – Outbreaks (7 cases, in two outbreaks) of botulism were associated with commercially prepared roasted eggplant in oil.
1995 (publication year) – An outbreak was associated with consumption of home-cured ham.
1996 – An outbreak (8 cases) was ascribed to “tiramisu” which contained contaminated mascarpone cream cheese.
2004 – An outbreak (25 cases, 0 fatal) was caused by green olives served by a restaurant in Molise.
2011 – An outbreak (3 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism in Finland was caused by imported jarred olives from Italy.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2014. 544 pages, 114 graphs, 3390 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
2. Berger SA. Botulism: Global Status, 2014. 86 pages, 90 graphs, 704 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/botulism-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Listeriosis in Scandinavia

Thursday, February 27th, 2014

Rates of listeriosis have been increasing in Scandinavia for over 20 years, and are currrently 2- to 5-fold those reported in the United States – see graph (black arrow = United States) [1-3]

ListeriaSweden

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2014. 484 pages, 137 graphs, 2,231 references Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2014. 101 pages, 105 graphs, 746 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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