Few countries publish reports of Pasteurella multocida infection on a national level. The incidence of human pasteurellosis in the United Kingdom increased from 172 cases in 1972, to 426 in 2006 and 466 in 2007. Five fatal cases were reported during 1993 to 2006. Reporting trends for P. multicida infection in England and Wales are depicted in the following graph:
Archive for the ‘Epidemiology’ Category
The following data on Anaplasmosis in Germany are abstracted from the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references available on request).
5.3% of rodents and 1% of Ixodes ricinus in Stuttgart (2008 publication)
3.2% of Ixodes ricinus adults and 2.3% of nymphs. 0.9% of infected ticks were found to carry Borrelia spp. (Hanover, 2011 publication)
61.8% of blood samples from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), 73.4% of associated Ixodes ricinus and 26.6% of Ixodes hexagonus (2007 to 2008)
3.2% of bird-feeding and 1.1% of rodent-feeding ticks in central Germany (2007)
1.4% of bird-feeding Ixodes ricinus in middle Germany (2007)
2.6% of bird-feeding Ixodes ricinus on a conservation island in the Baltic Sea (2007)
2.6% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from wild birds in the Baltic region (2007)
4.5% of hard ticks in Hanover (2010)
3.6% of Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg (2011)
1.0% of Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation on the Baltic coast (2008)
2.9% of questing Ixodes ricinus in Bavaria (2006)
8.7% of questing Ixodes ricinus in Leipzig (2009)
11.6% / 13.3% of adult female / male Ixodes ricinus females / males in Bavarian public parks in 2009; 8.5% / 9.2% in 2010
0% of questing adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the outskirts of Berlin (2012 publication)
8.2% of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 23% of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Brandenburg (2014 publication)
98.9% of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 86.1% of engorged deer ticks (Bavaria, 2010 to 2012)
14.0% of forestry workers, 11.4% of Lyme disease patients, and 1.9% of blood donors in southern Germany (1983 to 1984)
5.5% of persons in the Rhine-Main area – including 13.1% of patients with Lyme disease in the same region (1999 publication)
4.9% of military personnel in southwestern Germany
15% of hunters in Styria and Burgenland (2003 publication)
4.5% of persons seropositive toward Borrelia burgdorferi, and 1.2% of seronegatives (Berlin/Brandenburg, 1994 to 2001)
50.1% of dogs under investigation for anaplasmosis (2006 publication)
19.4% of dogs in Munich (2012 publication)
43% of dogs in northeast Germany (2010 publication)
17.8% of imported and traveling dogs (2010 publication)
43.2% of symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs (2007 publication)
43.2% of hunting dogs in Baden-Wurttemberg region (2007)
16.2% of cats in Bavaria and Lower Saxony (2012 publication)
9.1% of cats in Berlin / Brandenburg (2012 publication)
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Germany, 2014. 565 pages, 148 graphs, 3,318 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-germany/
2. Berger SA. Anaplasmosis: Global Status, 2014. 33 pages, 545 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/anaplasmosis-global-status/
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The following chronology of travel-associated angiostrongyliasis is abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series 
Four cases of angiostrongyliasis has been reported in Victoria, Australia as of 1999 – including three (one fatal) imported from Fiji.
1982 (publication year) – An outbreak (16 cases) was reported among Korean fisherman in American Samoa – traced to ingestion of giant African snails (Achatina fulica).
1984 (publication year) – Three cases of angiostrongyliasis acquired in Western Samoa were treated at a hospital in New Zealand.
1988 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1995 – A Swiss traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1996 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
1998 – An outbreak (6 cases) was reported among Thai laborers in Taiwan.
1999 – An outbreak was reported among Thai laborers in Taiwan.
1999 – A patient with angiostrongyliasis was transferred from Fiji to Australia, for treatment.
2000 – An outbreak (12 cases) among American tourists was caused by eating contaminated Caesar salad in Jamaica. An additional American tourist acquired the infection in Jamaica during 2001. 2001 (publication year) – Angiostrongyliasis was confirmed in an American tourist who had returned from Tonga.
2002 – A French traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Tahiti.
2004 (publication year) – Angiostrongyliasis was confirmed in a Swiss traveler who had returned from Cuba.
2006 – A Croatian seaman acquired angiostrongyliasis during travel to Malaysia and Singapore.
2006 – A German traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in the Dominican Republic.
2007 (publication year) – Eosinophilic meningitis reported in an Italian traveler to Santo Domingo.
2007 – A British traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Thailand.
2008 (publication year) – A Belgian traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis while traveling through Latin America and Fiji.
2008 (publication year) – An outbreak (5 cases) of angiostrongyliasis was reported among French policemen who had worked in French Polynesia.
2009 (publication year) – A German traveler acquired angiostrongyliasis in Thailand.
1. Berger S. Angiostrongyliasis: Global Status, 2014. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/angiostrongyliasis-global-status/
The following background information of botulism in Italy was abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (primary references are available on request).
Botulism has been a notifiable disease in Italy since 1975. Mean disease rates are similar to those reported in the United States – see graph  :
Vegetable preserves are implicated in 57% of cases, and ham and sausage in 15%. Recent outbreaks have been related to mushrooms in oil, pickled olives, fresh-cheese mascarpone and roasted eggplant in oil.
In 2012, a man in England acquired botulism from imported Italian olives.
Three cases of wound botulism were reported during 1988 to 1998; and the first report of wound botulism in an injecting drug user was published in 2010.
26 cases of infant botulism (and 3 of adult intestinal botulism) were reported during 1984 to 2006 (including 6 cases due to Clostridium butyricum toxin). Type A botulism accounted for 4 casers and type B for 17.
Only two outbreaks (5 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism were reported in Italy during 1903 to 1922. Five outbreaks were reported in 1998 alone.
1993 – Outbreaks (7 cases, in two outbreaks) of botulism were associated with commercially prepared roasted eggplant in oil.
1995 (publication year) – An outbreak was associated with consumption of home-cured ham.
1996 – An outbreak (8 cases) was ascribed to “tiramisu” which contained contaminated mascarpone cream cheese.
2004 – An outbreak (25 cases, 0 fatal) was caused by green olives served by a restaurant in Molise.
2011 – An outbreak (3 cases, 1 fatal) of botulism in Finland was caused by imported jarred olives from Italy.
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Italy, 2014. 544 pages, 114 graphs, 3390 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-italy/
2. Berger SA. Botulism: Global Status, 2014. 86 pages, 90 graphs, 704 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/botulism-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
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Rates of listeriosis have been increasing in Scandinavia for over 20 years, and are currrently 2- to 5-fold those reported in the United States – see graph (black arrow = United States) [1-3]
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2014. 484 pages, 137 graphs, 2,231 references Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2014. 101 pages, 105 graphs, 746 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
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Notwithstanding recent outbreaks among men-who-have-sex-with-men, the incidence of shigellosis in Australia has remained remarkably constant for over eighty years. In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates in Australia and New Zealand with those reported in the United States. [1-3]
In fact, most other forms of bacterial diarrhea have become far more common than shigellosis in Australia – see graph:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Shigellosis: Global Status, 2014.
162 pages, 199 graphs, 1,076 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/shigellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
Death rates from varicella and other vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. decreased dramatically as a result of widespread vaccination.  In the following graph, arrows indicate the years that varicella (blue) and measles (yellow) vaccines were introduced into the standard vaccine schedule. 
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1145 pages, 478 graphs, 12294 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool – see http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps
The following background data on Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (Primary references available from author)
England and Wales:
288 cases were reported through laboratory testing during 1989 to 2002, with decreasing incidence since the 1990’s (see graph). The annual disease rate is estimated at 0.2 per 100,000.
25% of dog hair samples (2003 publication)
7.2% of suburban dogs (1977 publication)
2% to 4% of dogs associated with a charity for deaf persons. (Bucks, 2007 publication)
1.4% of dogs with gastrointestinal disease (2003 to 2005)
91% of farm cats (1989)
53.3% of feral cats in London and Sheffield (1981 publication)
11.5% of domestic cats in London (1981 publication)
34.8% of stray urban cats (1978 to 1980)
16% of healthy kittens (2009 publication)
55.9% to 61.6% of foxes (2003 publication)
13.3% of soil samples in Leeds (1976)
5.2% of public parks and private gardens in London (1975)
66% of London parks (1984 to 1985)
6.3 of soil samples from London parks and gardens (1991 publication)
2.0% to 2.6%; 15.7% of dog breeders (1978)
47% of cull ewes in Powys and Gwent (2006 publication)
7% to 47% of sheep in Wales (2006 publication)
The reported incidence of toxocariasis varies from 0 to 4 cases per year (1992 to 2012).
20.9% of stray dogs in Glasgow (1975 to 1977)
12% of parks in Glasgow (1980)
33% of stray cats (1980)
Toxocara cati has also been identified in wild cats in northeastern Scotland.
Although no cases of toxocariasis were reported during 2001 to 2012, the disease is relatively common among both humans and animals in neighboring Republic of Ireland.
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2013. 1106 pages, 946 graphs, 3,801 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Toxocariasis: Global Status, 2013. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/toxocariasis-global-status/
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An increasing incidence of varicella in Thailand is almost the mirror image of American data (see graph ).
In fact, rates in the United States had already been decreasing for several years before the introduction of routine vaccination. Seroprevalence studies in the two populations are not dissimilar, and the striking difference in disease rates are difficult to explain. The following data are extracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [2-4] (Primary references are available on request.)
Varicella – seroprevalence surveys:
93.6% for persons ages 6 to 19 years, and 98.0% for persons ages 20 to 49 years (1999 to 2004)
84% to 95% of women of child bearing age in New York City (1976 publication)
99.7% of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in California, and 97.9% attending an antenatal clinic in Philadelphia. Only 6.8% and 17.4% of women who self-reported negative or uncertain varicella history were seronegative. (2007 publication)
77% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Buffalo, New York, 2005 to 2009)
98% of child-care providers in Seattle Washington (1996 publication)
88.1% of post-vaccination health-care workers (2013 publication)
95.9% of Coast Guard recruits (2003 publication)
82% of Somali refugees living in Minnesota (2007 publication)
97% of U.S.-bound refugees (2013 publication)
92% of Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas (2011 publication)
10% of infants; 24% pre-school; 67% school children; 74% young adults; 98% over age 30 (1994, Bangkok area)
15.5% in the age group 9 months to 4 years; 75.9% in the age group 20 to 29 years (1997 to 1998, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Had Yai)
82.3% of medical students in a hospital (Pratumthani, 2006 to 2007)
97.6% of medical students (2012 publication)
1. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2014. 516 pages, 165 graphs 2659 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1119 pages 470 graphs 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
4. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2014. 117 pages 132 graphs 565 references http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/
The following background data on Hepatitis C in Egypt are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] Primary references available on request.
Incidence and Prevalence:
Hepatitis C is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Egypt. The nationwide carriage rate in 1997 was estimated at 6 to 8 million, or 18.1% of the population – the highest rate in the world.
A study published in 2010 estimated the yearly rate at 500,000 new cases (0.7% of the population); while a study published in 2013 estimated the yearly rate at fewer than 150,000 cases. An analysis published in 2009 predicted that 127,821 deaths from chronic liver disease and 117,556 deaths from hepatocellular carcinoma would occur in Egypt over the next 20 years
The high rate of Hepatitis C infection in Egypt is largely attributed to previous mass-injection (antimony tartrate) treatment campaigns for schistosomiasis, which involved repeated use non-sterilized needles. 84% of patients who had received intravenous schistosomiasis therapy during the 1980’s were found to be HCV-positive; and anti-Schistosoma antibodies were found in 29% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (2013 publication). There is also evidence for ongoing transmission of hepatitis C from parents to children
Co-infection by other hepato-tropic viruses is common. 72.0% of children with hepatitis C are seropositive toward hepatitis E virus. (2008 publication); and occult Hepatitis B is present in 3.9% of patients with hepatitis C (2010 publication)
29.8% of viral hepatitis cases (2001)
3.6% of acute hepatitis patients hospitalized in Cairo (2002).
8% of acute hepatitis among military recruits (2012 publication)
2.02% of asymptomatic children ages 1 to 9 years (2007 publication)
21% of acute hepatitis in children (2013 publication)
78.5% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (2008 publication)
89.2% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 49.3% of those with other forms of cancer (2012 publication)
18% of dental instruments tested in Alexandria (HCV RNA, 2012 publication)
14.7% of persons ages 15 to 59 years, nationwide (2008)
5% to 15% of pregnant women, 5% to 25% of blood donors and 0% to 40% of other groups (meta-analysis, 2013 publication)
24.8% of blood donors, nationwide – highest rates in the central and north-eastern Nile River delta, and the Nile River valley south of Cairo (1993)
4.3% of blood donors (2006 to 2012)
8% of blood donors (2006 publication)
16.8% of blood donors (2011 publication)
11.95% of volunteer blood donors (2009 publication)
9.02% of blood donors in Minya Governorate (2000 to 2008)
3.5% of blood donors in Alexandria (2007 to 2008)
13.9% of healthy persons and 78.5% of hepatocellular carcinoma patients (literature review, 2009 publication)
5.8% of healthy children ages 6 to 15 (Alexandria, 2011 publication)
65% of children ages 1 to 9 years in Cairo (2011 publication)
9.7% of university students
22.1% of army recruits
13.6% to 19% (Cairo) to 20.8% (Alexandria, 1992 to 1994) of blood donors
10.9% of persons in El-ghar village, Zagazig (2006 to 2007)
2.7% of voluntary student blood donors in Mansoura (2006 publication)
19% of pregnant women in Alexandria (2000 publication)
15.8% of pregnant women in the Nile Delta (2006 publication)
7.4% of pregnant women in Assiut (2010 publication)
8.6% of pregnant women (2010 publication)
12.1% of rural school children
51% of adults above age 40 (Nile Delta)
75.8% to 83% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (2001 publication)
2% of Bedouins in Al Arish (Northern Sinai) and 5% in Nuweiba (Southern Sinai) (2001)
23.4% (urban) to 27.4% (rural) of the population of Sharkia Governorate (2004 publication)
14.3% of tourism workers in South Sinai governorate (1996 publication)
72.9% of persons with elevated serum hepatic enzymes in Ismailia (2009 publication)
8.5% of patients with chronic fascioliasis (1998 publication)
51.7% of multitransfused thalassemic children (2011 publication)
19.5% of multitransfused thalassemic patients (2009 to 2010)
34.4% of multitransfused thalassemic patients and 19.2% of their family members (2013 publication)
82% of multitransfused patients with beta thalassemia (2013 publication)
76% of children with beta thalassemia (Mid-Delta, 2010 to 2011)
35% of hemodialysis patients in Al Gharbiyah Governorate (2011)
40% of hemophiliac children (2012 publication)
18.5% of patients admitted to a rheumatology department (Cairo, 2011 publication)
16.6% of health care workers at the National Liver Institute (Nile Delta, 2008 to 2010)
63% of IDU, vs. 27.5% of controls (1995 publication)
15.8% of prisoners (2013 publication)
8.5% of STD patients (1993 to 1995)
12.3% of barbers and 12.7% of their clients in Gharbia (2010 publication)
84% of patients who had received intravenous schistosomiasis therapy during the 1980’s (2011 publication)
2.4% of first-generation Egyptian migrants living in the Netherlands (Amsterdam, 2009 to 2010)
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Egypt, 2013. 415 pages, 53 graphs, 2324 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-egypt/
2. Berger SA. Hepatitis C: Global Status, 2013. 181 pages, 163 graphs, 2251 references. Gideon e-books. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatitis-c-global-status/
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