Archive for the ‘Epidemiology’ Category

Listeriosis in Scandinavia

Thursday, February 27th, 2014

Rates of listeriosis have been increasing in Scandinavia for over 20 years, and are currrently 2- to 5-fold those reported in the United States – see graph (black arrow = United States) [1-3]

ListeriaSweden

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Sweden, 2014. 484 pages, 137 graphs, 2,231 references Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-sweden/
2. Berger SA. Listeriosis: Global Status, 2014. 101 pages, 105 graphs, 746 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/listeriosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://www.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Bacterial Diarrhea in Australia

Wednesday, February 26th, 2014

Notwithstanding recent outbreaks among men-who-have-sex-with-men, the incidence of shigellosis in Australia has remained remarkably constant for over eighty years. In the following graph I’ve contrasted disease rates in Australia and New Zealand with those reported in the United States. [1-3]

ShigANU

In fact, most other forms of bacterial diarrhea have become far more common than shigellosis in Australia – see graph:

AustDiarrhea

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Australia, 2014. 575 pages, 163 graphs, 3,658 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-australia/
2. Berger SA. Shigellosis: Global Status, 2014.
162 pages, 199 graphs, 1,076 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/shigellosis-global-status/
3. Gideon graph tool – http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

MMRV – Deaths in the United States

Friday, February 21st, 2014

Death rates from varicella and other vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. decreased dramatically as a result of widespread vaccination. [1] In the following graph, arrows indicate the years that varicella (blue) and measles (yellow) vaccines were introduced into the standard vaccine schedule. [2]

MMRV-Deaths

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1145 pages, 478 graphs, 12294 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
2. Gideon graph tool – see http://cdn.gideononline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom

Friday, February 14th, 2014

The following background data on Toxocariasis in the United Kingdom are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] (Primary references available from author)

England and Wales:
288 cases were reported through laboratory testing during 1989 to 2002, with decreasing incidence since the 1990′s (see graph). The annual disease rate is estimated at 0.2 per 100,000.

EW-Toxocara

Prevalence surveys:
25% of dog hair samples (2003 publication)
7.2% of suburban dogs (1977 publication)
2% to 4% of dogs associated with a charity for deaf persons. (Bucks, 2007 publication)
1.4% of dogs with gastrointestinal disease (2003 to 2005)
91% of farm cats (1989)
53.3% of feral cats in London and Sheffield (1981 publication)
11.5% of domestic cats in London (1981 publication)
34.8% of stray urban cats (1978 to 1980)
16% of healthy kittens (2009 publication)
55.9% to 61.6% of foxes (2003 publication)
13.3% of soil samples in Leeds (1976)
5.2% of public parks and private gardens in London (1975)
66% of London parks (1984 to 1985)
6.3 of soil samples from London parks and gardens (1991 publication)

Seroprevalence surveys:
2.0% to 2.6%; 15.7% of dog breeders (1978)
47% of cull ewes in Powys and Gwent (2006 publication)
7% to 47% of sheep in Wales (2006 publication)

Scotland:
The reported incidence of toxocariasis varies from 0 to 4 cases per year (1992 to 2012).

Prevalence surveys:
20.9% of stray dogs in Glasgow (1975 to 1977)
12% of parks in Glasgow (1980)
33% of stray cats (1980)

Toxocara cati has also been identified in wild cats in northeastern Scotland.

Northern Ireland:
Although no cases of toxocariasis were reported during 2001 to 2012, the disease is relatively common among both humans and animals in neighboring Republic of Ireland.

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United Kingdom, 2013. 1106 pages, 946 graphs, 3,801 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-kingdom/
2. Berger SA. Toxocariasis: Global Status, 2013. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/toxocariasis-global-status/

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Varicella – Thailand vs. United States

Monday, February 10th, 2014

An increasing incidence of varicella in Thailand is almost the mirror image of American data (see graph [1]).

Thailand-Varicella

In fact, rates in the United States had already been decreasing for several years before the introduction of routine vaccination. Seroprevalence studies in the two populations are not dissimilar, and the striking difference in disease rates are difficult to explain. The following data are extracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [2-4] (Primary references are available on request.)

Varicella – seroprevalence surveys:

United States
93.6% for persons ages 6 to 19 years, and 98.0% for persons ages 20 to 49 years (1999 to 2004)
84% to 95% of women of child bearing age in New York City (1976 publication)
99.7% of pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in California, and 97.9% attending an antenatal clinic in Philadelphia. Only 6.8% and 17.4% of women who self-reported negative or uncertain varicella history were seronegative. (2007 publication)
77% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Buffalo, New York, 2005 to 2009)
98% of child-care providers in Seattle Washington (1996 publication)
88.1% of post-vaccination health-care workers (2013 publication)
95.9% of Coast Guard recruits (2003 publication)
82% of Somali refugees living in Minnesota (2007 publication)
97% of U.S.-bound refugees (2013 publication)
92% of Mexican-Americans in San Antonio, Texas (2011 publication)

Thailand
10% of infants; 24% pre-school; 67% school children; 74% young adults; 98% over age 30 (1994, Bangkok area)
15.5% in the age group 9 months to 4 years; 75.9% in the age group 20 to 29 years (1997 to 1998, Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Had Yai)
82.3% of medical students in a hospital (Pratumthani, 2006 to 2007)
97.6% of medical students (2012 publication)

References:
1. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Thailand, 2014. 516 pages, 165 graphs 2659 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-thailand/
3. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2014. 1119 pages 470 graphs 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
4. Berger SA. Varicella-Zoster: Global Status, 2014. 117 pages 132 graphs 565 references http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/varicella-zoster-global-status/

Hepatitis C in Egypt

Thursday, December 19th, 2013

The following background data on Hepatitis C in Egypt are abstracted from Gideon www.GideonOnline.com and the Gideon e-book series. [1,2] Primary references available on request.

Incidence and Prevalence:
Hepatitis C is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Egypt. The nationwide carriage rate in 1997 was estimated at 6 to 8 million, or 18.1% of the population – the highest rate in the world.

A study published in 2010 estimated the yearly rate at 500,000 new cases (0.7% of the population); while a study published in 2013 estimated the yearly rate at fewer than 150,000 cases. An analysis published in 2009 predicted that 127,821 deaths from chronic liver disease and 117,556 deaths from hepatocellular carcinoma would occur in Egypt over the next 20 years

The high rate of Hepatitis C infection in Egypt is largely attributed to previous mass-injection (antimony tartrate) treatment campaigns for schistosomiasis, which involved repeated use non-sterilized needles. 84% of patients who had received intravenous schistosomiasis therapy during the 1980′s were found to be HCV-positive; and anti-Schistosoma antibodies were found in 29% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (2013 publication). There is also evidence for ongoing transmission of hepatitis C from parents to children

Co-infection by other hepato-tropic viruses is common. 72.0% of children with hepatitis C are seropositive toward hepatitis E virus. (2008 publication); and occult Hepatitis B is present in 3.9% of patients with hepatitis C (2010 publication)

Prevalence surveys:
29.8% of viral hepatitis cases (2001)
3.6% of acute hepatitis patients hospitalized in Cairo (2002).
8% of acute hepatitis among military recruits (2012 publication)
2.02% of asymptomatic children ages 1 to 9 years (2007 publication)
21% of acute hepatitis in children (2013 publication)
78.5% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (2008 publication)
89.2% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 49.3% of those with other forms of cancer (2012 publication)
18% of dental instruments tested in Alexandria (HCV RNA, 2012 publication)

Seroprevalence surveys:
14.7% of persons ages 15 to 59 years, nationwide (2008)
5% to 15% of pregnant women, 5% to 25% of blood donors and 0% to 40% of other groups (meta-analysis, 2013 publication)
24.8% of blood donors, nationwide – highest rates in the central and north-eastern Nile River delta, and the Nile River valley south of Cairo (1993)
4.3% of blood donors (2006 to 2012)
8% of blood donors (2006 publication)
16.8% of blood donors (2011 publication)
11.95% of volunteer blood donors (2009 publication)
9.02% of blood donors in Minya Governorate (2000 to 2008)
3.5% of blood donors in Alexandria (2007 to 2008)
13.9% of healthy persons and 78.5% of hepatocellular carcinoma patients (literature review, 2009 publication)
5.8% of healthy children ages 6 to 15 (Alexandria, 2011 publication)
65% of children ages 1 to 9 years in Cairo (2011 publication)
9.7% of university students
22.1% of army recruits
13.6% to 19% (Cairo) to 20.8% (Alexandria, 1992 to 1994) of blood donors
10.9% of persons in El-ghar village, Zagazig (2006 to 2007)
2.7% of voluntary student blood donors in Mansoura (2006 publication)
19% of pregnant women in Alexandria (2000 publication)
15.8% of pregnant women in the Nile Delta (2006 publication)
7.4% of pregnant women in Assiut (2010 publication)
8.6% of pregnant women (2010 publication)
12.1% of rural school children
51% of adults above age 40 (Nile Delta)
75.8% to 83% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (2001 publication)
2% of Bedouins in Al Arish (Northern Sinai) and 5% in Nuweiba (Southern Sinai) (2001)
23.4% (urban) to 27.4% (rural) of the population of Sharkia Governorate (2004 publication)
14.3% of tourism workers in South Sinai governorate (1996 publication)
72.9% of persons with elevated serum hepatic enzymes in Ismailia (2009 publication)
8.5% of patients with chronic fascioliasis (1998 publication)
51.7% of multitransfused thalassemic children (2011 publication)
19.5% of multitransfused thalassemic patients (2009 to 2010)
34.4% of multitransfused thalassemic patients and 19.2% of their family members (2013 publication)
82% of multitransfused patients with beta thalassemia (2013 publication)
76% of children with beta thalassemia (Mid-Delta, 2010 to 2011)
35% of hemodialysis patients in Al Gharbiyah Governorate (2011)
40% of hemophiliac children (2012 publication)
18.5% of patients admitted to a rheumatology department (Cairo, 2011 publication)
16.6% of health care workers at the National Liver Institute (Nile Delta, 2008 to 2010)
63% of IDU, vs. 27.5% of controls (1995 publication)
15.8% of prisoners (2013 publication)
8.5% of STD patients (1993 to 1995)
12.3% of barbers and 12.7% of their clients in Gharbia (2010 publication)
84% of patients who had received intravenous schistosomiasis therapy during the 1980′s (2011 publication)
2.4% of first-generation Egyptian migrants living in the Netherlands (Amsterdam, 2009 to 2010)

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Egypt, 2013. 415 pages, 53 graphs, 2324 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-egypt/
2. Berger SA. Hepatitis C: Global Status, 2013. 181 pages, 163 graphs, 2251 references. Gideon e-books. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatitis-c-global-status/

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Hepatitis A in Asian Russia

Saturday, December 14th, 2013

Reprted rates of Hepatiis A for Uzbekistan and bordering countries are strinkingly similar, and somewhat higher of those for the Russian Federation. [1,2] See graph [3]:

HepAUzbek

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Uzbekistan, 2013. 354 pages, 74 graphs, 69 references.
http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatitis-a-global-status/
2. Berger SA. Hepatitis A: Global Status, 2013. 169 pages, 182 graphs, 1274 references. http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/hepatitis-a-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Salmonellosis Rates in Scandinavia

Friday, December 13th, 2013

Reported rates of salmonellosis among the Scandinavian countries are similar, and consistently higher than those of the United States [1,2] – see graph [3]

Salmonella-Scandinavia

References:
1. Berger SA. Samonellosis: Global Status, 2013. 255 pages, 300 graphs, 2510 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/salmonellosis-global-status/
2. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of the United States, 2013. 1119 pages, 470 graphs, 11030 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-the-united-states/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

Leprosy in Nigeria

Sunday, November 17th, 2013

Leprosy rates in Nigeria have been decreasing slowly since the 1990′s, and are similar to those of surrounding countries and Africa as a whole. [1,2] See graph [3]:

Leprosy-Africa

References:
1. Berger SA. Infectious Diseases of Nigeria, 2013. 442 pages, 62 graphs, 2519 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/country/infectious-diseases-of-nigeria/
2. Berger SA. Leprosy: Global status, 2013. 238 pages, 377 graphs, 276 references. Gideon e-books, http://www.gideononline.com/ebooks/disease/leprosy-global-status/
3. Gideon Graph Tool, see tutorial at http://www.GIDEONonline.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/Gideon-Graphs.pps

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Fatal Plague in Madagascar

Saturday, October 19th, 2013

Madagascar accounts for most plague deaths in the world – see graph

plague deaths